Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the 118 At-Risk of AI-CTD individuals

Age, median (range) years48 (20–84)
No of female patients (%)104 (88)
Ethnicity, N (%)
 Caucasian85 (72)
 Indian/South Asian20 (17)
 African/Caribbean12 (10)
 Chinese1 (1)
Positive ANA, N (%)118 (100)
No of positive ANA specificities, median (range)1 (1–4)
Autoantibody-positive specificities, N (%)
 Anti-dsDNA42 (36)
  10–20 IU/mL15 (13)
  21–50 IU/mL18 (15)
  >50 IU/mL9 (8)
 Anti-Ro50 (42)
  <8 AI24 (20)
  ≥8 AI26 (22)
 Anti-La9 (8)
 Anti-Smith5 (4)
 Anti-Chromatin17 (14)
 Anti-RNP2 (2)
 Anti-Ribosomal P0 (0)
 Anti-Sm/RNP16 (14)
 Anti-Cardiolipin/anti-B2-glycoprotein5 (4)
Positive lupus anticoagulant, N (%)4 (3)
Concurrent positive RF, N (%)11 (9)
 Low titre (<50 iU/mL), N (%)5 (4)
 High titre (≥50 iU/mL), N (%)6 (5)
Concurrent positive anti-CCP antibody, N (%)*3 (3)
Low complement levels (C3 or C4), N (%)8 (7)
No of clinical criteria, N (%)
 020 (17)
 198 (83)
Clinical criteria present, N (%)
 Acute or sub-acute cutaneous lupus erythematosus†27 (24)
 Chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus1 (1)
 Oral or nasal ulcers4 (3)
 Non-scarring alopecia5 (4)
 Arthritis43 (36)
 Serositis1 (1)
 Renal0 (0)
 Neurological0 (0)
 Haemolytic anaemia0 (0)
 Leucopaenia or lymphopaenia12 (10)
 Thrombocytopenia5 (4)
 Glandular signs0 (0)
Family history of autoimmune rheumatic disease, N (%)‡43 (36)
Ever smoked, N (%)45 (38)
  • *All patients had low anti-CCP antibody titre (<50 U/mL).

  • †Only 1 patient had SCLE lesion.

  • ‡First-degree or second-degree relative with autoimmune rheumatic disease.

  • AI-CTD, autoimmune-related connective tissue disease; ANA, antinuclear antibody; CCP, cyclic citrullinated peptide; dsDNA, double-stranded DNA; RF, rheumatoid factor; RNP, ribonucleic protein.