RecommendationsCategory of evidenceStrength of recommendationLevel of Agreement mean (SD)
Median (Range)
1. Promoting PA consistent with general PA recommendations should be an integral part of standard care throughout the course of disease in people with RA/SpA/HOA/KOA.1BA9.81 (0.39)
10 (9–10)
2. All healthcare providers involved in the management of people with RA/SpA/HOA/KOA should take responsibility for promoting PA and should cooperate, including making necessary referrals, to ensure that people with RA/SpA/HOA/KOA receive appropriate PA-interventions.4D9.14 (0.98)
9 (7–10)
3. PA interventions should be delivered by healthcare providers competent in their delivery to people with RA/SpA/HOA/KOA.4D8.86 (1.48)
10 (5–10)
4. Healthcare providers should evaluate the type, intensity, frequency and duration of the people’s actual PA by means of standardised methods to identify which of the four domains of general PA recommendations can be targeted for improvement.3C9.05 (1.04)
9 (6–10)
5. General and disease-specific contraindications for PA should be identified and taken into account in the promotion of PA.4D9.10 (1.41)
10 (5–10)
6. PA interventions should have clear personalised aims, which should be evaluated over time, preferably by use of a combination of subjective and objective measures (including self-monitoring when appropriate).4D9.05 (1.25)
9 (5–10)
7. General and disease-specific barriers and facilitators related to performing PA, including knowledge, social support, symptom control and self-regulation should be identified and addressed.3C9.19 (1.13)
10 (6–10)
8. Where individual adaptations to general PA recommendations are needed, these should be based on a comprehensive assessment of physical, social and psychological factors including fatigue, pain, depression and disease activity.4D9.24 (0.86)
9 (7–10)
9. Healthcare providers should plan and deliver PA interventions that include the behavioural change techniques self-monitoring, goal setting, action planning, feedback and problem solving.1AA9.48 (0.79)
10 (7–10)
10. Healthcare providers should consider different modes of delivery of PA (eg, supervised/not-supervised, individual/group, face-to-face/online, booster strategies) in line with people’s preferences.4D9.00 (1.30)
9 (5–10)
  • HOA, hip osteoarthritis; KOA, knee osteoarthritis; OA, osteoarthritis; PA, physical activity; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; SpA, spondyloarthritis.