Table 1

Baseline characteristics of patients (n=41)

VariableValue
Age at diagnosis, mean±SD, years46.9±12.5
Females, n (%)22 (53.6)
Associated disease, n (%)*20 (48.8)
Charlson’s comorbidity score, median (range)1 (1–4)
Organ involvement before biologic exposure
 Fever, n (%)19 (46.3)
 Rheumatological manifestations, n (%)34 (82.9)
  Arthralgia, n (%)34 (82.9)
  Arthritis, n (%)19 (46.3)
 Auricular and nasal chondritis, n (%)41 (100)
  Auricular, n (%)31 (75.6)
  Nasal, n (%)34 (82.9)
 Sternal chondritis, n (%)22 (53.7)
  Manubriosternal, n (%)6 (14.6)
  Sternoclavicular, n (%)14 (34.1)
  Costosternal, n (%)15 (36.6)
 Ophthalmological manifestations, n (%)18 (43.9)
  Episcleritis, n (%)11 (26.8)
  Scleritis, n (%)4 (9.8)
  Uveitis, n (%)8 (19.5)
  Retinal vasculitis, n (%)1 (2.4)
 Respiratory manifestations, n (%)24 (58.5)
  Without acute respiratory failure, n (%)24 (58.5)
  With acute respiratory failure, n (%)1 (2.4)
 Vestibular and cochlear manifestations, n (%)15 (36.6)
  Sensorineural deafness, n (%)15 (36.6)
  Vestibular dysfunction, n (%)7 (17.1)
 Skin manifestations, n (%)6 (14.6)
  Purpura, n (%)4 (9.8)
  Erythema nodosum, n (%)2 (4.9)
 Cardiovascular manifestations, n (%)5 (12.2)
  Pericarditis, n (%)3 (7.3)
  Myocarditis, n (%)1 (2.4)
  Valvular disease, n (%)2 (4.9)
 Peripheral neuropathy, n (%)3 (7.3)
Autoantibodies
 Rheumatoid factor, n (%)4/33 (12.1)
 ACPA, n (%)1/26 (3.8)
 Antinuclear antibodies, n (%)19/35 (54.3%)
 ANCA, n (%)6/37 (16.2)
 Anti-collagen II n (%)2/10 (20.0)
 Anti-matrilin 10/2 (0)
Inflammation or fibrosis on histology, n (%)6/6 (100)
Non-corticosteroids treatments before biologic exposure 
n (%)
38 (92.7)
 Methotrexate, n (%)30 (73.2)
 Cyclophosphamide, n (%)11 (26.9)
 Azathioprine, n (%)10 (24.4)
 Dapsone, n (%)7 (17.1)
 Mycophenolate, n (%)5 (12.2)
Concomitant corticosteroids at the time of first exposure to a biologic
 Number of patients, n (%)35 (85.4)
 Mean dose (range), mg prednisone equivalent24.0 (10–80)
Concomitant NBDMARDs at the time of first exposure to a biologic †
 Methotrexate, n (%)17 (41.5)
 Hydoxychloroquine, n (%)6 (14.6)
 Azathioprine, n (%)3 (7.3)
 Mycophenolate, n (%)3 (7.3)
 Dapsone, n (%)2 (4.9)
 Colchicine, n (%)2 (4.9)
  • *Including notably four myelodysplastic syndromes, four cases of spondyloarthritis, three of inflammatory bowel diseases, three of neutrophilic dermatitis and two of rheumatoid arthritis. In one patient who had associated Crohn’s disease, both diseases were in flare-up at the first exposure to adalimumab.

  • †One patient was exposed to methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine, one patient received dapsone and hydroxychloroquine, one patient received methotrexate and colchicine and one patient received mycophenolate and hydroxychloroquine.

  • ACPA, anti-citrullinated protein antibodies; ANCA, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies; NBDMARDs, non-biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs