Table 3

Regression weights between structural parameters

Unstandardised direct effectsStandardised direct effectsSECritical ratioSignificance level
Impact of disease←positive personality−0.84−0.370.19−4.30<0.001
Impact of disease←DAS28CRP3v0.910.360.165.66<0.001
Happiness←positive personality0.590.500.124.81<0.001
Happiness←impact of disease−0.09−0.170.03−2.310.02
Coping←impact of disease1.000.87
Emotional well-being←impact of disease1.010.900.0518.99<0.001
Physical well-being←impact of disease1.000.940.0421.09<0.001
Sleep←impact of disease0.980.800.0615.23<0.001
Fatigue←impact of disease1.020.900.0519.05<0.001
Function disability←impact of disease0.980.890.0518.51<0.001
Pain←impact of disease0.880.820.0515.84<0.001
Extraversion←positive personality1.000.67
Agreeableness←positive personality0.380.320.113.200.001
Conscientiousness←positive personality0.550.460.115.02<0.001
Emotional stability←positive personality0.760.520.135.57<0.001
Openness to experience←positive personality0.770.540.135.68<0.001
SHS 1←happiness1.000.89
SHS 2←happiness1.080.920.0615.95<0.001
SHS 3←happiness0.880.670.0810.95<0.001
Quality of life←impact of disease−0.08−0.700.01−12.20<0.001
Quality of life←happiness0.030.130.012.440.014
  • Unstandardised direct effects come directly out of the estimation procedure. Due to the metric differences of the instruments, in this case, standardised direct effects should be preferred to indicate the strength of the associations (magnitude between −1 and +1). Higher absolute values indicate a stronger (positive or negative) association. An absolute critical ratio >1.96 reflects that path coefficients are significant at the 0.05 level.

  • DAS28CRP3v, Disease Activity Score using 28 joints and C reactive protein and three variables; SHS, Subjective Happiness Scale.