Table 2

Association between periodontal diagnostic codes and smoking habits compared with never smokers in EIRA RA cases, in relation to double seropositive or negative antibody status and gender*

Smoking habitsACPA-positive and RF-positive RA (n=1261)ACPA-negative and RF-negative RA (n=616)
No with periodontitis (%)†OR (95% CI)‡No with periodontitis (%)†OR (95% CI)‡
Total
All667 (100)328 (100)
Women479 (100)234 (100)
Men188 (100)94 (100)
Never smokers
All162 (24.3)1.0 (ref)122 (37.2)1.0 (ref)
Women130 (27.1)1.0 (ref)90 (38.5)1.0 (ref)
Men32 (17.0)1.0 (ref)32 (34.0)1.0 (ref)
Ex-smokers
All254 (38.1)1.8 (1.4 to 2.3)§94 (28.7)0.8 (0.6 to 1.1)
Women178 (37.2)1.9 (1.4 to 2.5)§53 (22.6)0.8 (0.5 to 1.2)
Men76 (40.4)1.9 (1.1 to 3.4)§41 (43.6)0.7 (0.4 to 1.3)
Ever smokers
All505 (75.7)1.7 (1.4 to 2.1)§206 (62.8)1.0 (0.7 to 1.2)
Women349 (72.9)1.7 (1.3 to 2.2)§144 (61.5)1.1 (0.8 to 1.5)
Men156 (83.0)2.0 (1.2 to 3.3)§62 (66.0)0.7 (0.4 to 1.1)
Current smokers
All200 (30.0)2.0 (1.5 to 2.7)§76 (23.2)1.0 (0.7 to 1.5)
Women133 (27.8)1.8 (1.3 to 2.5)§61 (26.1)1.3 (0.8 to 1.9)
Men67 (35.6)3.3 (1.8 to 6.2)§15 (16.0)0.5 (0.2 to 1.1)
  • *The periodontal diagnostic codes include periodontitis, peri-implantitis and increased risk for periodontitis/peri-implantitis.

  • †Number (%) of ACPA-positive and RF-positive or ACPA-negative and RF-negative RA cases with periodontal diagnostic codes.

  • ‡ORs, with a 95% CI, were adjusted for age, gender, education and residential area.

  • §p <0.05 for association between periodontal diagnostic codes and smoking habits as compared to never smokers among ACPA-positive and RF-positive or ACPA-negative and RF-negative RA cases.

  • ACPA, anticitrullinated protein antibody; EIRA, Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; ref, reference group; RF, rheumatoid factor.