Table 1

Main demographic, disease-related, lifestyle and socioeconomic characteristics of patients with axSpA

TotalDepressive symptomsP value
n=1736No
n=724 (42%)
Mild
n=479 (28%)
Moderate/severe
n=533 (31%)
Sex, female46.341.050.649.7 0.0008
Age, years55.8±0.157.4±0.454.1±0.555.1±0.4 <0.0001
Symptom duration25.2±0.326.6±0.523.9±0.624.3±0.6 0.0013
Duration since diagnosis19.4±0.321.3±0.517.9±0.618±0.6 <0.0001
In rheumatological care46.139.547.254.0 <0.0001
HLA-B27 positive86.087.483.586.60.2816
BASDAI, 0–104.5±03.3±0.14.8±0.15.8±0.1 <0.0001
BASFI, 0–104.1±0.12.9±0.14.2±0.15.6±0.1 <0.0001
IBD (claims data)5.54.93.97.8 0.0164
IBD (ever, self-reported)8.86.96.213.9 <0.0001
Uveitis (claims data)13.714.414.911.80.2969
Uveitis (ever, self-reported)27.328.72824.90.3181
Psoriasis (claims data)9.58.39.711.10.2789
Psoriasis (ever, self-reported)15.112.116.817.7 0.0152
Body mass index, kg/m²27±0.126.8±0.227±0.227.4±0.20.0872
Lack of exercise24.419.025.330.8 <0.0001
Suffering from stress39.925.547.852.6 <0.0001
Full-time employment31.732.235.627.4 0.0187
Household income, €
 <150025.920.126.733.1 < 0.0001
 1500–320056.055.058.355.2
 >320018.124.915.011.7
 Smoking, current18.914.820.023.4 0.0006
Pharmacological treatment
 NSAIDs59.750.963.468.6 <0.0001
 Non-opioid analgesics22.618.220.630.3 <0.0001
 Opioids169.416.524.4 <0.0001
 bDMARDs*17.115.519.117.50.2520
 csDMARDs†11.710.610.514.40.0818
 Glucocorticoids18.315.617.522.8 0.0046
No pharmacological treatment22.130.321.211.8 <0.0001
Physiotherapy49.745.648.156.6 0.0006
  • Values are presented as mean±SE of the mean for continuous characteristics and as percentages otherwise. P values were assessed using analyses of variance for continuous characteristics and Rao-Scott χ2 tests otherwise. 

  • P values <0.05 are shown in bold.

  • *bDMARDs: 17.0% tumour necrosis factor blocker, 0.07% secukinumab, 0.06% tocilizumab, 0.06% ustekinumab, 0.05% abatacept.

  • †csDMARDs: 5.7% sulfasalazine, 5.6% methotrexate, 0.9% leflunomide, 0.6% azathioprine, 0.2% ciclosporin.

  • AxSpA, axial spondyloarthritis; BASDAI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index; BASFI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index; bDMARDs, biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; csDMARDs, conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; IBD, inflammatory bowel disease; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.