Table 1

Demographic and clinical data of healthy controls and patients with rheumatoid arthritis

HCRA+RA−
Demographic characteristics
 Sex (n male/n female)38/5826/7022/62
 Age (years; mean±SD)50.1±16.554.2±12.253.9±12.2
 BMI (mean±SD)24.5±3.7*†26.2±5.1*26.8±5.8†
 Smokers (n; %)7 (7.3)*23 (24.0)*12 (14.3)
Disease-specific characteristics
 Disease duration (years; mean±SD)9.7±8.97.1±7.2
 DAS28-ESR (units; mean±SD)3.3±1.63.2±1.3
 HAQ-DI (units; mean±SD)0.7±0.70.7±0.6
 ACPA positive (n; %)96 (100.0)‡0 (0)‡
 RF positive (n; %)73 (76.0)‡7 (8.3)‡
Anti-rheumatic treatment
 Glucocorticoids (n; %)34 (35.4)31 (36.9)
 Methotrexate (n; %)39 (40.6)44 (52.4)
 Other cDMARDs (n; %)10 (10.4)6 (7.1)
 bDMARDs (n; %)44 (45.8)31 (36.9)
 No current DMARD (n; %)§22 (22.9)21 (25.0)
Anti-osteoporotic treatment
 Vitamin D (n; %)4 (4.2)*36 (37.5)*‡19 (22.6)‡
 Bisphosphonates (n; %)0*8 (8.3)*3 (3.6)
  • *Significance between HC vs RA+.

  • †Significance between HC vs RA−.

  • ‡Significance between RA+ vs RA−.

  • §Either treatment naïve or in drug-free remission.

  • ACPA, anti-citrullinated protein antibody; bDMARD, biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug; BMI, body mass index; cDMARD, conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug; DAS28-ESR, Disease Activity Score 28 - Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate; HAQ-DI, Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index; HC, healthy controls; RA+, anti-citrullinated protein autoantibody-positive  rheumatoid arthritis (RA); RA−, anti-citrullinated protein autoantibody-negative RA; RF, rheumatoid factor.