Table 1

Patient characteristics at start of bDMARD therapy, among all bionaïve Swedish patients with RA, 2011–2015

TNFiRituximabMean difference versus TNFi (95% CI)AbataceptMean difference versus TNFi (95% CI)TocilizumabMean difference versus TNFi (95% CI)
Patients, n5307655274245
Demographics
 Age, mean (SD)55.2 (14.1)65.1 (12.5)10.0 (9.0 to 11.1)61.4 (13.3)6.2 (4.7 to 7.8)58.5 (13.7)3.3 (1.7 to 5.1)
 Female, n (%)3929 (74.0)471 (71.9)1.3 (−2.4 to 5.3)202 (73.7)1.7 (−3.4 to 7.2)190 (77.6)4.5 (−0.7 to 10.1)
Highest education, n (%)
  9 years or less908 (21.2)165 (33.0)5.7 (1.6 to 10.1)60 (29.0)4.2 (−1.5 to 10.3)44 (25.1)2.0 (−4.8 to 8.5)
  10 to 12 years2091 (48.9)219 (43.8)−2.6 (−7.4 to 1.9)102 (49.3)1.2 (−5.5 to 8.2)87 (49.7)2.0 (−5.5 to 9.9)
 >12 years1279 (29.9)116 (23.2)−3.1 (−7.1 to 0.9)45 (21.7)−5.4 (−11.1 to 0.3)44 (25.1)−4.0 (−10.6 to 2.7)
Country of birth, n (%)
  Sweden485 (9.1)82 (12.5)−6.9 (−10.1 to −3.3)21 (7.7)−1.6 (−5.8 to 2.7)27 (11.0)−1.6 (−6.3 to 3.1)
  Scandinavia267 (5.0)54 (8.2)1.6 (−0.6 to 3.9)19 (6.9)1.1 (−2.2 to to 4.1)13 (5.3)−0.3 (−3.3 to 2.4)
  Other4555 (85.8)519 (79.2)5.3 (2.5 to 7.8)234 (85.4)0.5 (−2.9 to 3.5)205 (83.7)1.9 (−2.3 to 5.7)
Medical history
 Days hospitalised last 5 years, mean (SD)5.5 (16.5)15.2 (30.5)8.0 (5.4 to 10.2)14.9 (29.0)8.4 (4.7 to to 11.5)7.5 (16.6)1.1 (−1.2 to 3.1)
 Days of work loss last 5 years, mean (SD)363.1 (588.2)587.2 (703.2)183.0 (103.1 to 264.7)560.2 (715.8)151.1 (45.6 to 261.9)407.9 (651.3)20.4 (−77.7 to 116.2)
 Healthcare costs last 5 years, TSEK, mean (SD)123.3 (133.4)228.0 (234.2)85.4 (66.6 to 102.6)213.0 (216.0)77.6 (52.5 to 103.3)136.0 (143.1)2.5 (−16.7 to 20.7)
RA clinical characteristics
 Rheumatoid factor positive (%)3886 (75.2)566 (88.2)10.4 (7.6 to 13.3)206 (76.6)−0.5 (−6.0 to 4.9)182 (75.2)−0.7 (−6.4 to 4.9)
 Disease duration, years, mean (SD)9.1 (9.8)12.9 (12.7)2.1 (1.0 to 3.1)9.6 (11.6)−0.7 (−2.0 to 0.6)7.3 (10.2)−2.3 (−3.6 to −1.1)
 HAQ, mean (SD)1.02 (0.61)1.16 (0.66)0.06 (−0.00 to 0.13)1.12 (0.61)0.07 (−0.02 to 0.16)1.14 (0.55)0.10 (0.02 to 0.17)
 DAS28, mean (SD)4.70 (1.28)4.83 (1.28)−0.04 (−0.17 to 0.09)4.95 (1.23)0.16 (−0.01 to 0.34)5.16 (1.13)0.39 (0.23 to 0.55)
 Tender joints, 0–28, mean (SD)6.9 (5.6)6.7 (5.6)−0.1 (−0.6 to 0.5)7.0 (5.5)0.2 (−0.6 to 0.9)7.9 (6.0)0.9 (−0.0 to 1.7)
 Swollen joints, 0–28, mean (SD)6.3 (4.8)6.1 (4.6)−0.4 (−0.9 to 0.0)6.7 (5.0)0.3 (−0.4 to 1.0)6.8 (5.1)0.5 (−0.2 to 1.2)
 Global health, mean (SD)54.4 (24.8)53.6 (24.8)−1.3 (−3.6 to 1.3)56.4 (23.5)1.5 (−1.5 to 4.5)57.3 (21.8)2.7 (−0.4 to 5.7)
 ESR, mean (SD)24.2 (20.4)30.6 (22.5)2.2 (0.1 to 4.4)30.4 (22.2)4.0 (1.1 to 6.9)33.4 (26.3)7.7 (4.1 to 11.2)
 CRP, mean (SD)15.9 (21.9)18.8 (22.4)0.7 (−1.4 to 2.8)20.6 (25.9)3.4 (−0.1 to 6.7)23.3 (28.0)7.4 (3.6 to 10.9)
 VAS pain, mean (SD)54.8 (24.9)53.5 (24.5)−1.7 (−4.1 to 0.8)56.9 (24.1)1.8 (−1.5 to 5.3)57.3 (23.8)2.2 (−1.1 to 5.5)
 Conc. use of MTX, n (%)3812 (71.8)352 (53.7)−17.8 (−21.8 to −13.6)161 (58.8)−12.6 (−18.7 to −6.7)135 (55.1)−15.5 (−21.7 to −9.4)
 Conc. use of non-MTX csDMARD, n (%)1035 (19.5)166 (25.3)6.9 (3.2 to 10.6)54 (19.7)0.4 (−5.1 to 5.2)28 (11.4)−6.9 (−11.2 to −2.9)
 Conc. use of oral steroids, n (%)2692 (50.7)375 (57.3)4.0 (−0.0 to 8.0)139 (50.7)−1.7 (−7.8 to 4.2)116 (47.3)−4.3 (−10.8 to 2.3)
 Conc. use of NSAIDs, n (%)1573 (29.6)128 (19.5)−8.4 (−11.7 to −5.0)60 (21.9)−6.1 (−11.2 to −1.2)56 (22.9)−4.3 (−9.9 to 0.9)
  • Mean differences are compared with TNFi in multivariable linear regression adjusted for age, sex and geographical region with bootstrapped CIs.

  • bDMARD, biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug; csDMARD, conventional synthetic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; TNFi, tumour necrosis factor inhibitor; TSEK, Thousand SEK; MTX, methotrexate.