Table 1

Demographic and clinical variables by outcome status at baseline among patients with aPL and/or SLE

VariableAPO
(n=100)
No APO
(n=387)
P value*
Demographic characteristics
 Race/ethnicity, N (%)0.135
  Non-Hispanic white52 (52)223 (58)
  Hispanic white5 (5)30 (8)
  African American21 (21)57 (15)
  Asian10 (10)42 (11)
  Other2 (2)17 (4)
  Do not know10 (10)18 (5)
 BMI, N (%)<0.001
  <2543 (45)228 (63)
  25–3025 (26)83(23)
  >3028 (29)52(14)
  Missing424
 Maternal age, mean (SD)30.5 (5.2)31.6 (4.8)0.054
Clinical history
 Parity, N (%)0.20
  Nulliparous53 (53)231 (60)
  Parous without history of PE36 (36)132 (34)
  Parous with history of PE11 (11)24 (6)
 aPL†/SLE status, N (%)<0.001
  aPL+/SLE–28 (28)73 (19)
  aPL+/SLE+21 (21)39 (10)
  aPL–/SLE+51 (51)275 (71)
 Lupus nephritis ever, N (%)0.28
  No71 (71)295 (76)
  Yes29 (29)92 (24)
 Thrombosis, N (%)<0.001
  No74 (74)352 (91)
  Yes26 (26)35 (9)
 Systolic, mean (SD)117 (13)110 (11)<0.001
 Diastolic, mean (SD)72 (10)66 (9)<0.001
 Smoking, N (%)0.48
  Never71 (71)290 (75)
  Ever24 (24)84 (22)
  Current5 (5)11 (3)
Laboratory values
 LAC, N (%)<0.001
  No59 (59)334 (86)
  Yes41 (41)53 (14)
 Proteinuria (500–1000 mg/day), N (%)0.122
  No89 (89)362 (94)
  Yes11 (11)25 (6)
Disease activity (SLE only, n=386)
 SLEPDAI, mean (SD)3.8 (3.3)2.5 (2.8)0.003
 SLEPDAI>4, N (%)<0.001
  No47 (67)264 (86)
  Yes23 (33)44 (14)
 PGA, mean (SD)0.6 (0.6)0.3 (0.5)0.006
 PGA>1, N (%)0.002
  No51 (80)278 (92)
  Yes13 (20)23 (8)
Current medications
 Aspirin N (%)0.37
  No50 (50)174 (45)
  Yes50 (50)213 (55)
 Antihypertensive, N (%)<0.001
  No82 (82)366 (95)
  Yes18 (18)21 (5)
 Heparin, N (%)<0.001
  No46 (46)256 (66)
  Yes54 (54)131 (34)
 Glucocorticoids, N (%)0.33
  Current35 (35)119 (31)
  Prior23 (23)118 (30)
  Never42 (42)150 (39)
  Daily dose (mg, current users), Mean (SD)9.1 (7.5)7.7 (5.7)0.29
  • *By Pearson’s χ2 tests for the categorical variables or two-sample t-tests for the continuous variables.

  • †aPL positive is defined as anticardiolipin antibody (aCL: IgG ≥40 GPL units; IgM ≥40 MPL units) and/or positive LAC (dilute Russell’s viper venom time test, an LAC-sensitive test for activated partial thromboplastin time or the dilute prothrombin time test) and/or anti-β2 glycoprotein I (antiβ2GPI: IgG ≥40 GPL units; IgM ≥40 MPL units) at least twice between 6 weeks and 5 years apart of which one must be during the PROMISSE pregnancy at a core laboratory, as previously described).21

  • aPL, antiphospholipid; APO, adverse pregnancy outcome; BMI, body mass index; LAC, lupus anticoagulant; PE, preeclampsia; PGA, physician global assessment; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus .