Table 2

Association of baseline SUA level and incident all-cause dementia and by type

%Model 1*Model 2† Model 3 ‡Model 4§
UA level (μmol/L)(N event)HR (95% CI)pHR (95% CI)pHR (95% CI)pHR (95% CI)p
All-cause dementia (n=110)
<75th percentile5.7 (68)1.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)
≥75th percentile10.3 (42)1.67 (1.13;2.47)0.0091.81 (1.18;2.75)0.0061.79 (1.17;2.73)0.0071.86 (1.21;2.86)0.004
Q14.8 (19)1.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)
Q26.0 (24)1.12 (0.61; 2.04)0.721.18 (0.64; 2.19)0.601.20 (0.65; 2.22)0.571.27 (0.68; 2.37)0.45
Q36.3 (25)1.30 (0.72; 2.36)0.391.42 (0.77; 2.62)0.271.46 (0.79; 2.71)0.231.62 (0.87; 3.03)0.13
Q410.3 (42)1.90 (1.10; 3.29)0.0212.20 (1.21; 3.98)0.0092.21 (1.22; 4.00)0.0092.43 (1.34; 4.42)0.004
p for linear trend 0.0080.0040.0040.001
Alzheimer’s disease (n=76)
<75th percentile4.2 (49)1.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)
≥75th percentile6.9 (27)1.48 (0.92; 2.39)0.111.55 (0.92; 2.59)0.101.55 (0.92; 2.61)0.101.61 (0.96; 2.72)0.07
Q13.8 (15)1.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)
Q23.8 (15)0.88 (0.43; 1.81)0.740.90 (0.43; 1.87)0.770.92 (0.44; 1.92)0.820.99 (0.47; 2.10)0.99
Q34.9 (19)1.25 (0.63; 2.45)0.521.31 (0.65; 2.64)0.451.35 (0.67; 2.73)0.411.52 (0.74; 3.11)0.26
Q46.9 (27)1.54 (0.81; 2.91)0.191.66 (0.83; 3.33)0.151.70 (0.84; 3.42)0.141.89 (0.94; 3.83)0.08
p for linear trend 0.090.070.070.06
Vascular or mixed dementia (n=20)
<75th percentile0.8 (9)1.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)
≥75th percentile2.9 (11)3.11 (1.29; 7.53)0.0123.74 (1.35; 10.36)0.0113.66 (1.29; 10.41)0.0153.59 (1.26; 10.20)0.017
Q10.5 (2)1.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)
Q21.3 (5)1.98 (0.38; 10.22)0.422.72 (0.52; 14.34)0.942.88 (0.54; 15.40)0.222.97 (0.56; 15.89)0.20
Q30.5 (2)0.97 (0.14; 6.87)0.971.34 (0.18; 9.96)0.781.41 (0.19; 10.55)0.741.42 (0.19; 10.82)0.74
Q42.9 (11)4.25 (0.94; 19.24)0.066.38 (1.23; 33.26)0.0286.47 (1.21; 34.43)0.0296.41 (1.20; 34.29)0.03
p for linear trend 0.0250.0170.0210.022
  • *Model 1: adjusted for education level, gender.

  • †Model 2: model 1 + BMI, tobacco and alcohol consumption, cholesterol (LDL and HDL), triglycerides, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, interaction between hypertension and time (age at last follow-up or dementia occurrence), history of cardiovascular disease, glomerular filtration rate and APOE-ε4.

  • ‡Model 3: model 2 + NSAIDs, aspirin or diuretics.

  • §Model 4: model 3 + CRP and IL-6 levels, and interaction between IL-6 and time (age at last follow-up or dementia occurrence).

  • APOE, apolipoprotein E; BMI, body mass index; CRP, C reactive protein; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; IL, interleukin; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; SUA, serum uric acid.

  • Q1: quartile 1 (lowest quartile); Q2: quartile 2; Q3: quartile 3; Q4: quartile 4 (highest quartile). Cutoffs gender-specific for SUA: 75th percentile=345 for men, 292 for women; Q1: <260 in men, <209 for women; Q2: 260–299 for men, 209–247 for women; Q3: 299–345 for men, 247–292 for women; Q4: ≥345 for men, ≥292 for women.