Table 4

Relationship between country-level socioeconomic factors and bDMARD and csDMARD use, all tested individually in separate models (each cell represents a different model)

bDMARD usecsDMARD use
Univariable analysis
OR (95% CI)
Multivariable analysis†
OR (95% CI)
Univariable analysis
OR (95% CI)
Multivariable analysis‡
OR (95% CI)
GDP (high/medium vs low)1.57 (0.78 to 3.15)1.93 (0.91 to 4.06)0.59 (0.30 to 1.15)0.44 (0.21 to 0.91)*
Gini (high/medium vs low)0.84 (0.38 to 1.87)0.73 (0.31 to 1.72)0.76 (0.35 to 1.65)0.96 (0.39 to 2.37)
HDI (very high/high vs medium)2.16 (0.64 to 7.27)2.12 (0.62 to 7.31)0.32 (0.11 to 0.98)*0.29 (0.08 to 1.07)
  • *P<0.05.

  • †Refers to the multivariable model presented in table 2 and in which the variable health expenditures was replaced by the other country-level socioeconomic factors, in separate models.

  • ‡Refers to the multivariable model presented in table 3 and in which the variable health expenditures was replaced by the other country-level socioeconomic factors, in separate models.

  • bDMARD, biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; csDMARD, conventional synthetic DMARDs; GDP, gross domestic product; Gini, measure of income inequality; HDI, human development index.