Table 1

Patient characteristics

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  • *Days between initiation of immunotherapy and the diagnosis of connective tissue disease.

  • †History of spondyloarthritis.

  • ‡Occurrence of other IrAEs (thyroiditis and colitis in case 1 and thyroiditis and hepatitis in case 2).

  • §Combination therapy (with an anti-CTLA4 agent in case 1 and with BRAF and MEK inhibitors in case 3).

  • ¶Retrospective detection of ANAs in serum samples collected before the initiation of ICIs.

  • abs, antibodies; ANA, antinuclear antibody; CK, creatine phosphokinase; CTCAE, Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events; ICI, immune checkpoint inhibitor; IrAE, immune-related adverse event.