Table 2

Uptake of bDMARDs: association with sociodemographic, clinical and treatment variables as well as indicators of the country socioeconomic welfare

Independent predictorsUnivariable analysis
OR (95% CI)
Multivariable analysis
OR (95% CI) n=2792
Country health expenditure (high/medium vs low)1.71 (0.84 to 3.50)1.96 (0.94 to 4.10)
Age (years)1.01 (1.00 to 1.01)1.00 (0.99 to 1.01)
Male gender (vs females)1.18 (1.01 to 1.39)1.26 (1.04 to 1.53)
Axial (vs peripheral) disease1.48 (1.16 to 1.89)1.62 (1.15 to 2.28)
ASDAS0.82 (0.76 to 0.89)0.80 (0.73 to 0.87)
Sacroiliitis on X-ray1.75 (1.44 to 2.12)1.41 (1.12 to 1.78)
History of extra-articular manifestations1.46 (1.25 to 1.70)1.31 (1.08 to 1.58)
Total NSAID score (0–400), last 3 months0.99 (0.99 to 1.00)0.99 (0.99 to 1.00)
Past csDMARD use2.31 (1.96 to 2.73)2.08 (1.72 to 2.52)
Past bDMARD use2.64 (2.13 to 3.28)2.48 (1.93 to 3.19)
Education
(secondary/university vs primary)
0.79 (0.62 to 1.00)0.76 (0.52 to 1.13)
  • ASDAS, Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score; bDMARD, biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; csDMARD, conventional synthetic DMARDs; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.