Table 2

Clinical characteristics of all patients (SLE), and grouped according to disease activity in second trimester, reported as n (%) unless specified as mean (SD)

CharacteristicSLE (total)Inactive disease
(LAI-P=0)
Active disease
(LAI-P>0)
Not registered disease activityP value*
Number of deliveries180856332
Maternal age, mean (SD)31.5 (5.0)31.9 (4.6)31.3 (5.5)30.8 (4.9)0.47
 <35138 (76.7)65 (76.5)47 (74.6)26 (81.3)
 ≥3542 (23.3)20 (23.5)16 (25.4)6 (18.8)
 Missing
Nullipara77 (42.8)32 (37.6)29 (46.0)16 (50.0)0.39
 Missing
Smoking in pregnancy12 (6.9)2 (2.4)7 (11.1)3 (10.3)0.032†
 Missing633
BMI first trimester, mean (SD)23.8 (4.9)22.7 (4.4)24.7 (5.8)24.5 (3.9)0.11
 <18.57 (8.0)6 (15.0)1 (3.4)0
 18.5–2552 (59.1)24 (60.0)19 (65.5)9 (47.4)
 ≥2529 (33.0)10 (25.0)9 (31.0)10 (52.6)
 Missing92453413
Educational level0.44
 Low‡13 (7.4)6 (7.2)5 (8.1)2 (6.5)
 Intermediate§46 (26.1)18 (21.7)19 (30.6)9 (29.0)
 High¶117 (66.5)59 (71.1)38 (61.3)20 (64.5)
 Missing4211
ACR criteria fulfilled**114 (82.3)51 (77.3)47 (90.4)16 (84.2)0.10
 Missing43111913
Disease duration, mean (SD)8.7 (6.2)8.8 (5.6)8.6 (6.2)8.3 (7.4)0.86
 Missing9522
Prior pregnancy loss30 (18.0)13 (16.9)15 (24.2)2 (7.1)0.39
 Missing13814
Prior pre-eclampsia13 (7.2)6 (7.1)6 (9.5)1 (3.1)0.53
 Missing211
Positive LAC29 (23.6)14 (21.9)12 (27.9)3 (18.8)0.63
 Missing57212016
Positive aCL IgG13 (7.4)8 (9.8)5 (8.1)00.73
 Missing5311
Positive Aβ2GPI IgG9 (5.0)3 (6.1)6 (18.8)00.089†
 Missing83363116
Prior kidney manifestation40 (35.0)21 (31.3)22 (40.0)7 (33.3)0.42
 Missing3718811
  • *P value for active compared with inactive disease.

  • †The unconditional z-pooled exact test.

  • ‡10 years.

  • §12–13 years.

  • ¶>15 years.

  • **≥4 criteria according to 1997 American College of Rheumatology diagnostic criteria for SLE.

  • Aβ2GPI IgG, anti-beta2 glycoprotein I IgG; aCL IgG, anti-cardiolipin IgG; ACR, American College of Rheumatology; BMI, body mass index; LAC, lupus anticoagulant; LAI-P, Lupus Activity Index in Pregnancy; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.