Table 3

Multivariate analysis: protective factors and risk factors for damage accrual over the follow-up

OR95% CIp Value
(A) Baseline predictors and LLDAS
≥5 Consecutive year LLDAS 0.071 0.023 to 0.217 <0.001
4 Consecutive year LLDAS 0.122 0.034 to 0.443 0.001
3 Consecutive year LLDAS 0.252 0.075 to 0.842 0.025
2 Consecutive year LLDAS 0.279 0.085 to 0.920 0.036
1-Year LLDAS0.8990.232 to 3.4800.877
Age 1.038 1.015 to 1.062 0.001
Mycophenolate 2.173 1.062 to 4.446 0.034
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome 4.008 1.648 to 9.749 0.002
Cumulative PDN dose, g 1.016 1.003 to 1.033 0.049
(B) Baseline predictors, LLDAS and remission
≥2 consecutive year remission 0.076 0.023 to 0.250 <0.001
Age 1.045 1.021 to 1.069 0.001
Skin involvement 2.303 0.961 to 5.516 0.061
Mycophenolate 2.160 1.044 to 4.470 0.038
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome 2.928 1.205 to 7.114 0.018
Cumulative PDN dose, g 1.021 1.005 to 1.037 0.011
  • Variables entered in the multivariate analysis A were duration of LLDAS (categorical variable with six levels) and the following baseline characteristics: age, disease duration, SDI, mean SLEDAI-2K, skin involvement, vasculitis, use of mycophenolate and antimalarials, mean prednisone dose, APS and cumulative prednisone dose.

  • Variables entered in the multivariate analysis B were remission (considered as a dichotomous variable with two levels: remission lasting ≥2 consecutive years vs remission lasting <2 years), LLDAS (considered as a dichotomous variable with two levels: LLDAS lasting ≥2 consecutive years vs LLDAS lasting <2 years), and the following variables at baseline: age, disease duration, cumulative prednisone dose, SDI, APS, mean SLEDAI-2K, skin involvement and vasculitis, use of mycophenolate, cyclophosphamide and antimalarials, and mean prednisone dose.

  • Significant variables are given in bold.

  • LLDAS, lupus low disease activity state; PDN, prednisone.