Table 2

Studies characteristics and T2DM incidence among HCQ ever users (group 1) and never users (group 2)

StudyGroupNTotal person-yearsT2DM incident casesOngoing treatment (%)HR (95% CI)
Non-HCQ csDMARDsTNFiCS
Bili et al 29 Group 133348434824770.31 (0.10 to 1.0)
Group 2794204145613077
Holmqvist et al 30 Group 12670NRNRNRNRNR0.59 (0.48 to 0.73)
Group 28183NRNRNRNRNR
Wasko et al 31 Group 1180810 36454640720.62 (0.42 to 0.92)
Group 2309719 31317149058
  • CS, corticosteroid; csDMARD, conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; NR, not reported; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus; TNFi, TNF inhibitors.