Table 3

Population attributable risk for 10-year cardiovascular disease risk by sex

Risk factorTarget valuesMultivariable-adjusted*
Population attributable risk, %
p Value for sex difference
Cardiovascular diseaseOverallWomenMen
Total cholesterol, mmol/LDecreased to 4.5 mmol/L11.55.415.70.56
LDL-c, mmol/LDecreased to 2.5 mmol/L0.28.1−9.10.41
HDL-c, mmol/LIncreased to 1.2 mmol/L for women, 1.0 mmol/L for men1.
Triglycerides, mmol/L†Decreased to 1.7 mmol/L2.
Current/former smokerNever smoked23.718.137.20.12
Diabetes mellitusAbsence2.
Body mass index, kg/m2 Decreased to 25 kg/m2 −0.2−
Rheumatoid arthritis
 DAS28 ≥3.2Decreased to <3.212.616.96.20.46
 RF/ACPA positiveNegative12.
 ESR, mm/hourDecreased to 20 mm/hour1.
 CRP, mg/LDecreased to 5 mg/L1.
All CVD risk factors49.042.861.10.29
All RA characteristics30.339.918.00.39
All CVD and all RA characteristics69.672.769.30.87
  • *All CVD risk factors (including age) were included in one multivariable model for each sex, except triglycerides. Each RA variable was subsequently added to each sex-specific multivariable model including all the CVD risk factors.

  • †Estimates for triglycerides were obtained by removing HDL-c and adding triglycerides to the overall multivariable model.

  • ACPA, anticitrullinated protein antibodies; CRP, C reactive protein; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DAS28, Disease Activity Score including 28 joints; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; HDL-c, high density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-c, low density lipoprotein cholesterol; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; RF, rheumatoid factor.