Table 1

Characteristics of the included studies

Author, year, (multiple publication)Study characteristicsCharacteristics of gout pts
Study populationInterventionNo. of ptsFemales, n ptsAge, yearsBMI, kg/m2Disease duration, yearsUrate-lowering medication use, n ptsPresence of tophi, n pts
Nguyen et al, 2016 44 (Sherwin et al 198147)Men with a high cardiovascular risk profile and no gout at baseline of the MRFIT* study (n=11 896). 408 developed gout during the 7-year follow-up period.This substudy of MRFIT uses a subpopulation, stratifying the risk of recurrent gout attacks for the BMI change in gout pts.408†0 (0)NANANANANA
Dalbeth et al, 201427 (Dalbeth, et al 201342)Pts with T2D and BMI ≥35 kg/m2 who met presurgery weight loss requirements during part 1 (72 included, 60 completed). Included gout pts.(Part 1) Presurgery weight loss
(dietetic advice, set goals to establish a regular exercise programme and lose 5–10 kg, in addition to Optifast VLCD programme 4 weeks prior to surgery).
(Part 2) Bariatric surgery
(laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy)
125 (42)49 (8)48.5 (5.4)6.4 (7)9 (75)NA
Romero-Talamás et al, 201446Gout pts with obesity (n=155).I: Bariatric surgery
(Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, gastrectomy, or adjustable gastric banding)
9975 (75)52.1 (10.3)49.5 (11.9)NA53 (56)NA
C: Non-bariatric surgery
(laparoscopic cholecystectomy, open cholecystectomy, cholecystectomy with another contaminant procedure or laparoscopic Heller myotomy).
5634 (61)63.3 (11.9)36.8 (9.8)NA23 (42)NA
Zeng et al, 201249
(In Chinese, RCT)
Overweight men with gout, not using urate-lowering medication or having tophi (67 randomised, 61 completed the study).I: High protein300 (0)61.5 (14.5)27.0 (1.3)NA0 (0)0 (0)
C: Low purine310 (0)61.3 (11.2)27.2 (1.6)NA0 (0)0 (0)
Perez-Ruiz et al, 201145
(unpublished data)
Gout pts with 5 years of compliance to urate-lowering therapy, and no tophi or resolution of all tophi prior to withdrawing urate-lowering therapy (n=211).Withdrawal of urate-lowering therapy, stratified according to weight loss: lost >5% weight25‡1 (4)NANA7.4 (6.4)25 (100)0 (0)
Withdrawal of urate-lowering therapy, stratified according to weight loss: no weight loss167‡7 (4)NANA7.2 (6.4)167 (100)0 (0)
Zhu et al, 201029 (Sherwin, et al 198147)Men with a high cardiovascular risk profile and sufficient data from the MRFIT* study (n=12 379). Included gout pts.This substudy of MRFIT uses a subpopulation, stratifying the changes in sUA for baseline BMI, weight change and other variables.NA†0 (0)NA
(All: 46 (range, 35–57))
Barskova et al, 200940
(In Russian)
Gout pts (30 included, 23 completed).Metformin (1500 mg/day)232 (7)51 (range, 43–54)32.6 (5.2)6 (range, 4–11)0 (0)8 (27)
Friedman et al, 200843Pts received gastric bypass and experiencing postoperative gout attacks.Bariatric surgery
(gastric bypass and preoperative preparation, that is, clear liquid diet with protein supplementation 4–7 days and mechanical bowel preparation 2 days).
216 (29)52 (range, 32–73)49.6 (range, 36.1– 63)NANANA
Dessein et al, 200028
(Terkeltaub, et al, 200148)
Gout pts. without tophi (n=13).Diet recommendations
(calorie restriction with specified macronutrient proportions, replacing refined carbohydrates with complex ones and replacing saturated fats with monosaturated and polyunsaturated ones).
130 (0)50§ (5.6; range, 38–62)30.5§¶ (8.1)7§(10.2; range, 0.5–38)0 (0)0 (0)
Brandstetter et al, 198641
(In German)
Gout pts with hyptertension (n=22)I: Allopurinol, diet (low purine) and celiprolol (betablocker) and chlorthalidone (diuretic).
C: Allopurinol, diet (low purine) and celiprolol .
(both groups)
7 (32)52§ (range, 28–68)26.0**NANANA
  • The results are reported as mean (SD) or number (%), unless otherwise indicated.

  • *The original study (MRFIT)39 randomised pts (n=12 866) to intervention (smoking cessation, weight reduction by caloric intake reduction and increased physical activity, nutritional counselling and antihypertensive treatment) or control.

  • †May include gout pts that were not overweight at baseline.

  • ‡Due to loss of data in the study, the number of pts in the groups were 25 and 167 at baseline, and 29 and 163 at latestfollow-up.

  • §Median.

  • ¶One had normal BMI.

  • **No BMI were reported, so BMI were calculated from data on height (median, 179 (range, 162–199)), and weight (median, 83.2 (range, 58–105)).

  • Allopurinol, diet (low purine) and caliprolol.

  • BMI, body mass index; C, control treatment; I, intervention; MRFIT, The Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial; NA, no data available; pts, patients; RCT, randomised controlled trial; sUA, serum uric acid; T2D, type 2 diabetes.