Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the RABBIT cohort, cases (patients who developed stroke during follow-up) and their matched controls

Remainder of the cohort,
n=11 865
Controls,
n=326
Cases,
n=163
Matching criteria
 Gender, female9071 (76.5) 244 (74.8)  122 (74.8)
 Age (years), mean (SD) 55.8 (12.5)* 62.6 (10.2)  63.4 (10.7)
 Hypertension4354 (36.7)* 184 (56.4)   92 (56.4)
 Coronary heart disease 672 (5.7)  30 (9.2)   15 (9.2)
 Heart failure 262 (2.2)   6 (1.8)    3 (1.8)
 Diabetes mellitus1157 (9.8)*  54 (16.6)   27 (16.6)
 Smoking, never5153 (43.4) 132 (40.5)   66 (40.5)
 Smoking, ever and unknown6712 (56.6) 194 (59.5)   97 (59.5)
 Enrolment period (prior 2007)4773 (40.2)* 174 (53.4)   87 (53.4)
Unmatched criteria
 Time to event/index date (months), mean (SD) 46.6 (31.9)  46.6 (32.0)
 Observation time (months), mean (SD) 48.9 (33.0)* 73.7 (32.8)  68.3 (32.3)
 Disease duration (years), mean (SD)  9.7 (9.0) 11.3 (9.7)  10.9 (9.2)
 Rheumatoid factor positive8379 (71.2)* 250 (77.2)  128 (79.0)
 CRP (mg/L), mean (SD) 18.4 (26.0)* 21.4 (39.6)  24.2 (31.3)
 ESR (mm/hour), mean (SD) 30.7 (22.7)* 33.2 (23.3)  35.6 (25.6)
 DAS28, mean (SD)  5.1 (1.3)*  5.4 (1.4)   5.4 (1.3)
 % of full physical function, mean (SD) 64.0 (23.1)* 60.3 (22.8)  54.0 (23.8)
 NRS patient global health 0–10, mean (SD)  6.0 (2.1)*  6.1 (2.1)   6.5 (2.2)
 BMI ≥30 kg/m2 2818 (23.8)  76 (23.3)   41 (25.2)
 Hyperlipoproteinaemia 921 (7.8)*  39 (12)   27 (16.6)
 Chronic renal disease 437 (3.7)*  24 (7.4)   12 (7.4)
 Osteoporosis2089 (17.6)*  77 (23.6)   49 (30.1)
 ≥2 comorbidities4634 (39.1)* 181 (55.5)†  102 (62.6)
 No CV treatment1038/4849 (21.4)*41/195 (21.0)†35/104 (33.7)
 No diabetes treatment 226/1157 (19.5)16/54 (29.6)  4/27 (14.8)
 No osteoporosis treatment 325/2089 (15.6)13/77 (16.9)  6/49 (12.2)
 No of previous csDMARDs, mean (SD)  2.2 (1.4)  2.6 (1.4)   2.6 (1.5)
 No of previous bDMARDs, mean (SD)  0.3 (0.7)  0.3 (0.6)   0.4 (0.9)
 Enrolment therapy: csDMARD3874 (32.9) 110 (34.2)   47 (29.6)
 Enrolment therapy: TNFi6009 (51.0) 157 (48.8)   81 (50.9)
 Enrolment therapy: other bDMARD1907 (16.2)  55 (17.1)   31 (19.5)
 Glucocorticoids, <5 mg/day4748 (40.0) 136 (41.7)   49 (30.1)
 Glucocorticoids, 5–10 mg/day4718 (39.8) 133 (40.8)   82 (50.3)
 Glucocorticoids, ≥10 mg/day2351 (19.8)  54 (16.6)   32 (19.6)
 Any NSAID6150 (51.8) 189 (58)   89 (54.6)
  • Values are numbers of patients (%) unless otherwise specified.

  • *p<0.05 in unpaired tests versus cases (t-test or χ 2 test).

  • †p<0.05 in paired tests versus cases (linear mixed effects model with a random component, differences in comorbidity treatment were analysed with χ 2 test).

  • bDMARD, biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug; BMI, body mass index; CRP, C reactive protein; csDMARD, conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; CV, cardiovascular; DAS28, disease activity based on 28 joint count; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; NRS, numeric rating scale; NSAID, non-steroidal antirheumatic drug; TNFi, inhibitors of tumour necrosis factor alpha.