Table 3

Investigation of risk factors for stroke

Cohort study Nested case–control study
Univariate analysis Adjusted Cox-PH model Univariate analysis Adjusted shared frailty model
HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)
Age per 5 years*1.42 (1.32 to 1.54)1.37 (1.25 to 1.50)
Gender, male*1.19 (0.84 to 1.70)1.03 (0.70 to 1.52)
logCRP1.30 (1.12 to 1.52)1.16 (0.99 to 1.35)1.41 (1.17 to 1.70)1.17 (0.98 to 1.40)
ESR1.07 (1.04 to 1.11)1.06 (1.02 to 1.09)
DAS281.28 (1.15 to 1.42)1.33 (1.17 to 1.51)
% of full physical function per 10 points0.83 (0.78 to 0.88)0.90 (0.84 to 0.96)0.92 (0.86 to 0.98)0.85 (0.78 to 0.93)
Hypertension*2.47 (1.81 to 3.37)1.33 (0.95 to 1.86)
Coronary heart disease*1.91 (1.12 to 3.25)
Heart failure*1.12 (0.36 to 3.52)
Hyperlipoproteinaemia2.57 (1.70 to 3.89)1.60 (1.04 to 2.45)1.60 (1.05 to 2.44)
Diabetes mellitus*2.13 (1.41 to 3.21)1.26 (0.82 to 1.94)
Chronic renal disease2.91 (1.61 to 5.25)1.28 (0.69 to 2.36)1.92 (1.06 to 3.49)
Osteoporosis1.84 (1.32 to 2.57)1.09 (0.77 to 1.56)1.47 (1.05 to 2.06)
≥2 comorbidities2.89 (2.10 to 3.97)1.99 (1.44 to 2.76)
No CV disease (Reference)
 CV disease with therapy2.41 (1.70 to 3.42)1.51 (0.98 to 2.32)1.81 (0.85 to 3.82)
 CV disease and no therapy4.31 (2.83 to 6.54)3.11 (1.89 to 5.10)3.31 (1.52 to 7.19)
csDMARD (Reference)
 TNFi0.82 (0.60 to 1.12)0.85 (0.60 to 1.20)1.23 (0.87 to 1.73)0.82 (0.52 to 1.28)
 Other bDMARDs0.89 (0.60 to 1.31)0.89 (0.58 to 1.37)0.83 (0.55 to 1.27)0.64 (0.37 to 1.13)
No of previous bDMARDs1.16 (0.96 to 1.39)1.26 (1.05 to 1.51)1.34 (1.00 to 1.79)
No of previous csDMARDs1.00 (0.89 to 1.12)0.88 (0.79 to 0.98)
Glucocorticoids, current by 5 mg/day1.11 (1.00 to 1.24)1.25 (0.99 to 1.58)0.90 (0.71 to 1.14)
Glucocorticoids, weighted†1.72 (0.85 to 3.44)1.17 (0.56 to 2.45)0.80 (0.22 to 3.00)
Non-selective NSAIDs, weighted†1.04 ([0.74 to 1.47)1.19 (0.85 to 1.68)
Cox-2 inhibitors, weighted†1.34 (0.85 to 2.13)1.30 (0.82 to 2.06)1.22 (0.77 to 1.93)
Smoking, never* (Reference)
 Smoking, ever1.37 (0.99 to 1.89)1.87 (1.33 to 2.64)
 Smoking, unknown1.14 (0.60 to 2.17)1.19 (0.63 to 2.28)
SAEs, 6 months prior stroke
 Overall3.31 (2.18 to 5.02)
 Serious infections4.23 (2.03 to 8.81)4.39 (1.55 to 12.46)
 CV events (other than stroke)3.02 (1.38 to 6.65)2.87 (0.94 to 8.74)
 Surgeries1.00 (0.49 to 2.04)0.87 (0.33 to 2.27)
 All other SAEs3.36 (2.10 to 5.37)2.61 (1.42 to 4.81)
  • Baseline information was used for age, all comorbidities, CV treatment and smoking.

  • *Matching criteria were not considered in the model of the case–control study.

  • †The weighted approach is explained in the methods section.

  • bDMARD, biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; COX-2 inhibitors, inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 ; CRP, C reactive protein; csDMARD, conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; CV, cardiovascular; DAS28, disease activity based on 28 joint count; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; NSAID, non-steroidal antirheumatic drug; SAE, serious adverse event; TNFi, inhibitors of tumour necrosis factor alpha.