Table 2

Cumulative clinical manifestations according to remission status

Clinical manifestationsRemission (clinical or complete) ≥5 years (n=193)Remission (clinical or complete) <5 years (n=346)Non-remission (n=230) p* p†
Number (%); mean±SD
Age, years 49.9±13.2 44.9±14.1 45.7±15.8<0.001 0.004
Women173 (90)329 (95)206 (90) 0.02 0.98
Arthritis124 (64)237 (68)147 (64) 0.32 0.94
Facial rash 85 (44)159 (46)110 (48) 0.67 0.44
Discoid rash 21 (11) 27 (7.8) 29 (13) 0.23 0.58
Mucosal ulceration 23 (12) 45 (13) 34 (15) 0.72 0.39
Photosensitivity 50 (26) 88 (25) 54 (23) 0.90 0.56
Alopecia 44 (23)107 (31) 64 (28) 0.04 0.24
Raynaud’s phenomenon 40 (21) 75 (22) 46 (20) 0.80 0.85
Haemolytic anaemia 39 (20) 75 (22) 54 (23) 0.69 0.42
Leucopenia (<4×109/L) 54 (28)116 (34)104 (45) 0.18<0.001
Thrombocytopaenia (<100×109/L) 35 (18) 91 (26) 69 (30) 0.03 0.005
Lymphadenopathy 24 (12) 43 (12) 28 (12) 0.99 0.94
Renal 95 (49)168 (49)136 (59) 0.88 0.04
Neuropsychiatric§ 29 (15) 45 (13) 28 (12) 0.51 0.39
Serositis 28 (15) 75 (22) 45 (20) 0.04 0.17
Interstitial lung disease  3 (1.6) 11 (3.2)  8 (3.4) 0.26 0.22
Gastrointestinal 11 (5.7) 37 (11) 19 (8.3) 0.05 0.31
Anti-dsDNA124 (64)246 (71)165 (72) 0.10 0.10
Anti-Sm 26 (13) 71 (21) 41 (18) 0.04 0.22
Anti-Ro 95 (49)220 (64)137 (60) 0.001 0.03
Anti-La 22 (11) 79 (23) 46 (20) 0.001 0.02
Anti-nRNP 43 (22)115 (33) 74 (32) 0.007 0.02
Antiphospholipid‡ 44 (23) 88 (25) 60 (26) 0.50 0.43
  • *Comparison between remission ≥5 years and remission <5 years.

  • †Comparison between remission ≥5 years and non-remission.

  • ‡Anticardiolipin IgG or the lupus anticoagulant.

  • §Included psychosis, seizure, aseptic meningitis, acute confusional state, myelitis, peripheral and cranial neuropathy, myasthenia gravis, and movement disorder.