Table 1

Serious infections in patients on bDMARDs compared with patients on csDMARDs or general population (observational studies)

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  • Estimates in bold reflect a risk/ratio statistically significantly different from 1, ie association is statistically significant.

  • More details are found in online supplementary tables S1–S31.

  • *Unadjusted estimate; no adjusted estimate reported.


  • ‡Standardised incidence rates are reported, with the general population as the reference.

  • §Adjusted OR reported.

  • ¶Non-viral opportunistic infections included fungal infections, tuberculosis, pneumocystosis, nocardiosis/actinomycosis, non-tuberculous mycobacteria, salmonellosis, listeriosis and legionellosis.

  • ADA, adalimumab; aHR, adjusted Hazard Ratio; bDMARDs, biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; BIOBADASER, Spanish Biologics Register; BSRBR, British Society of Rheumatology Biologics Register; CORRONA, Consortium of Rheumatology Researchers of North America; csDMARDs, conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; CZP, certolizumab; ETA, etanercept; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; IFX, infliximab; MTX, methotrexate; NR, not reported; RABBIT, Rheumatoid Arthritis Observation of Biologic Therapy (in German); RATIO, French Biologics Register; REAL, Registry of Japanese Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients for Long-term Safety; RR, relative risk; RTX, rituximab; SSZ, sulfasalazine; TCZ, tocilizumab; TNFi, tumour necrosis factor α inhibitor.