Table 3

The association of infections with incident giant cell arteritis

ExposureUnadjusted IRR (95% CI)p ValueAdjusted IRR (95% CI)*p Value
Herpes zoster infection1.24 (1.10 to 1.39)<0.011.17 (1.04 to 1.32)<0.01
Herpes zoster infection and antiviral therapy1.16 (0.99 to 1.36)0.051.09 (0.93 to 1.28)0.27
Any infection1.44 (1.34 to 1.56)<0.011.26 (1.16 to 1.36)<0.01
No. of infections
 01 (reference)1 (reference)
 11.38 (1.27 to 1.50)<0.011.28 (1.18 to 1.40)<0.01
 2–41.88 (1.71 to 2.08)<0.011.60 (1.44 to 1.77)<0.01
 5 or more2.94 (2.58 to 3.36)<0.012.18 (1.90 to 2.51)<0.01
Test for trend<0.01Test for trend<0.01
  • *Adjusted for Charlson Comorbidity Index, alcohol use, smoking history, prior use of immunosuppressive therapies and prior use of oral glucocorticoids.

  • IRR, incident rate ratio.