Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study participants

CharacteristicControl group (no=1999)Surgery group (no=1982)p Value
Age, year49±647±6<0.001
Sex, no. men (%)568 (28)573 (29)0.73
Body mass index*40±542±4<0.001
Waist circumference, cm117±9121±100.005
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg138±18145±19<0.001
Diastolic blood pressure, mm  Hg85±1190±11<0.001
Hypertension, no. (%)1267 (63)1545 (78)<0.001
Uric acid, mg/dL5.9±1.36.0±1.30.25
Uric acid ≥6.8 mg/dL, no. (%)463 (23)502 (25)0.11
Creatinine, mg/dL0.8±0.10.8±0.10.71
Blood glucose, mg/dL88±3294±36<0.001
Insulin, mU/L18±1122±14<0.001
Diabetes, no. (%)249 (13)334 (17)<0.001
Total cholesterol, mg/dL217±43228±43<0.001
Triglycerides, mg/dL179±125200±137<0.001
Alcohol intake, g/day5.3±8.15.2±7.30.76
Previous cardiovascular events, no. (%)44 (2)43 (2)0.95
Smoking, no. (%)417 (21)513 (26)<0.001
Drugs associated with gout risk†, no. (%)414 (21)433 (22)0.38
  • Plus–minus values are means±SD.

  • *The body mass index is the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in metres.

  • Drugs associated with gout risk: diuretics, β-blockers, low-dose acetylsalicylic acid, statins, ciclosporin and organic nitrates.