Table 1

Demographic characteristics and damage in total study cohort and in subgroups of patients according to the durations of remission (irrespective of the level of remission) achieved during the follow-up (upper part); damage accrual according to the levels of remission for each duration of remission (lower part)

Total study cohort 293Unremitted disease 351-year remission 27 2-year remission 473-year remission 454-year remission 26≥5-year remission 113p Values
Age in 2009, years, mean±SD39.1±12.538.6±9.431.8±11.141.4±13.242.2±12.842.4±14.840.7±12.10.048
Female, no. (%)253 (86.3)28 (80%)21 (77.8)41 (87.2)37 (82.2)24 (92.3)102 (90.3)n.s.
SLE duration at 2015, years, mean±SD18.1±7.819.4±7.615.5±8.519.8±7.819.2±8.717.5±7.820.0±7.3n.s.
SDI at study entry0 (0–8)0 (0–3)0 (0–3)1 (0–4)0 (0–4)0 (0–4)0 (0–8)n.s.
SDI at the end of study1 (0–9)2 (0–7)2 (0–6)2 (0–5)1 (0–7)1 (0–5)0 (0–9)<0.001
Median (range) SDI increase1 (0–6)1 (0–6)1 (0–3)1 (0–3)1 (0–3)0 (0–3)0 (0–3)<0.001
Increase in SDI, no. of patients (%)151 (51.5)31 (88.6)22 (81.5)31 (66.0)23 (51.1)13 (50.0)31 (27.4)<0.001
Increase in SDI ≥2, no. of patients (%)51 (17.4)14 (40.0)12 (44.4)11 (23.4)6 (13.3)4 (15.3)4 (3.6)<0.001
Median (range) SDI increase according to the level of remission
 Clinical remission on-CS1 (0–3)1 (0–3)1 (0–2)1 (0–3)1 (0–3)
 Clinical remission off-CS1 (0–2)1 (0–2)0 (0–3)0 (0–3)0 (0–1)
 Complete remission2 (1–3)0 (0–0)0 (0–2)0 (0–0)0 (0–2)
p>0.05p>0.05p>0.05p>0.05p<0.001
  • Upper part: variables with a parametric (age, SLE duration) and non-parametric distribution (SDI) were analysed by ANOVA test and Wilcoxon's test for multiple comparisons with 5° of freedom, respectively.

  • Lower part: the comparison of SDI among patients with different levels of remission (complete remission, clinical remission on-CS and off-CS) for each duration of remission was performed by Wilcoxon's test for multiple comparisons with two degrees of freedom.

  • ANOVA, analysis of variance; CS, corticosteroids; SDI, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.