Table 1

Characteristics of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) and control individuals

Whole bloodCD19+ B cellsMinor salivary gland biopsies
Patients with pSSControlsPatients with pSSControlsPatients with pSSControls
Individuals, n10040024471513
Women, n (%)89 (89)351 (87.8)24 (100)35 (74.4)*15 (100)13 (100)
Age, years, (mean±SD)56.1±13.647.1±13.2**56.6±13.848.8±17.747.8±15.947.5±17.2
Autoantibody frequency, n (%)
 Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs)80 (80)n.a.20 (83.3)n.a.14 (93.3)0
 Anti-SSA antibodies75 (75)n.a.24 (100)n.a.15 (100)0
 Anti-SSB antibodies41 (41)n.a.13 (54.2)n.a.8 (53.3)0
Minor salivary gland biopsies†
 Focus score, median (range)2 (1–12)n.a.2 (1–12)n.a.2 (1–10)0
Medication, n (%)
 Prednisolone7 (7)n.a.1 (4.2)n.a.0n.a.
 Hydroxychloroquine14 (14)n.a.5 (20.8)n.a.1 (6.7)n.a.
 Immunosuppressants4 (4)‡n.a.2 (8.4)§n.a.0n.a.
  • Whole blood and CD19+ B cells from the same individual were available from 17 patients; whole blood, CD19+ B cells and biopsies from 10 patients.

  • *p<0.01, **p<0.0001 for the difference between patients with pSS and controls. Frequencies compared with Fisher's exact test and continuous variables with Mann-Whitney U test.

  • †Biopsies performed in 75/100 patients with whole blood samples and 21/24 patients with CD19+ B cells.

  • ‡Azathioprine (n=2), mycophenolate mofetil (n=1), chlorambucil (n=1).

  • §Methotrexate (n=2).

  • n.a., not available.