Table 2

Patient characteristics in LLDAS validation study (n=191)

Mean (SD) or n (%)
Sex (female)162 (84.8%)
Age at SLE diagnosis (years)33.3 (14.6)
Age at recruitment (years)40.4 (14.8)
 Pacific Islander1%
Disease duration at recruitment (years)7.3 (7.3)
Number ACR Classification criteria at recruitment5.1 (1.3)
SLEDAI-2K* at recruitment5.1 (5.1)
SLICC-SDI† at recruitment0.8 (1.0)
Neurological manifestations ever‡38 (19.9%)
Musculoskeletal manifestations ever‡151 (79.1%)
Nephritis ever‡101 (52.9%)
Mucocutaneous manifestations ever‡170 (89.0%)
Cardiopulmonary manifestations ever‡88 (46.1%)
Haematological manifestations ever‡106 (55.5%)
ANA positive (at recruitment)191 (100%)
Anti-dsDNA positive (at recruitment)128 (67.0%)
Hypocomplementaemia (at recruitment)128 (67.0%)
Medication use (during follow-up) 
 Daily prednisolone dose (mg)7.08 (7.39)
 Immunosuppressant use§185 (96.9%)
 Antimalarial178 (93.2%)
 Azathioprine76 (39.8%)
 Mycophenolate mofetil47 (24.6%)
 Mychophenolic acid6 (3.1%)
 Methotrexate46 (24.1%)
 Leflunomide5 (2.6%)
  Ciclosporine1 (0.5%)
  • *Scores range from 0 to 105, with higher scores indicating more active disease.

  • †Scores range from 0 to 46, with higher scores indicating greater disease-related damage.

  • ‡Determined as positive if patients met the ACR classification criteria in the relevant domains, or had active disease (SLEDAI-2K) in the relevant domain during follow-up.

  • §Immunosuppressants include methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, mycophenolic acid, leflunomide and ciclosporine.

  • ACR, American College of Rheumatology; ANA, antinuclear antibody; LLDAS, Lupus Low Disease Activity State; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; SLEDAI, SLE Disease Activity Index; SLICC-SDI, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index.