Table 1

LLDAS definition

Domain and itemsMean agreement score* in Delphi Round 2
Disease activity
1. SLEDAI-2K ≤4, with no activity in major organ systems (renal, CNS, cardiopulmonary, vasculitis, fever) and no haemolytic anaemia or gastrointestinal activity5.0
2. No new features of lupus disease activity compared with the previous assessment4.7
3. SELENA-SLEDAI physician global assessment (PGA, scale 0–3) ≤14.8
Immunosuppressive medications
4. Current prednisolone (or equivalent) dose ≤7.5 mg daily4.5
5. Well tolerated standard maintenance doses of immunosuppressive drugs and approved biological agents, excluding investigational drugs4.5
  • *Scale 1 to 5, where 1=strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=unsure, 4=agree, 5=strongly agree.

  • CNS, central nervous system; LLDAS, Lupus Low Disease Activity State; SLEDAI, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index.