Table 1

DMARD tapering/withdrawal studies

Tanaka et al24HONORUC275RAADASTOPREMDAS28 <2.6>6 m48%1
Saleem et al25UC147ERA/RATNFiSTOPREMDAS28 <2.6>6 m15%–59%2
Brocq et al26UC121RATNFiSTOPREMDAS28 <2.6>6 m25%1
Aguilar-Lonzano et al28UC145RATOCSTOPREMDAS28 <2.644%1
Naredo et al50UC177RATNFiTAPREMDAS28 <2.6>6 m55%1
Iwamoto et al51UC140RATNFi, TOCSTOPREMDAS28 <2.660%0.5
Alivernini et al52UC142RATNFiTAP/STOPREMDAS44 <1.6>6 m61%0.5
Tanaka et al23RRRUC1102RAIFXSTOPLDADAS28 ≤3.2>6 m55%1
van der Maas et al27UC151RAIFXTAPLDADAS28 ≤3.2>6 m16%–45%1
Nishimoto et al29DREAMUC1187RATOCSTOPLDADAS28 ≤3.213%1
van Herwaarden et al30UC122RATOCTAPLDADAS28 ≤3.255%0.5
Quinn et al3120TNFSA220ERAIFXSTOPREM–§70%1
Klarenbeek et al34BESTSA1243ERASD/IFXTAPREMDAS44 <1.6>6 m23%2
Nam et al38IDEASA114ERAETASTOPREMDAS44 <1.6>6 m42%0.5
Huinzinga et al41ACT-RAYSA1238RATOCSTOPREMDAS28 <2.614%1
Detert et al36HIT-HARDSA1155ERAADASTOP–¶–¶89%1
Smolen et al35OPTIMASA2207ERAADASTOPLDADAS28 ≤3.2**66%–81%1
Soubrier et al37GUÉPARDSA169ERAADASTOPLDADAS28 ≤3.233%<1
Emery et al40AVERTSA1222ERAABASTOPLDADAS28 ≤3.2**15%1
ten Wolde et al21RCT2285RASDSTOPREMACR>6 m62%1
Ahern et al22RCT238RASDTAPREMTJC0/SJC0>6 m21%0.5
Haschka et al15RETRORCT3101RAAll††TAP/STOPREMDAS28 <2.6>6 m48%–61%1
Emery et al42PRIZERCT3193ERAMTX/ETASTOPREMDAS28 <2.624%–63%0.5
Fautrel et al43STRASSRCT1137RATNFiTAPREMDAS28 <2.6>6 m74%1.5
Smolen et al44PRESERVERCT3604RAETATAP/STOPLDADAS28 ≤3.2>6 m43%–79%1
van Vollenhoven et al45DOSERARCT391RAETATAP/STOPLDADAS28 ≤3.2>6 m52%1
van Herwaarden et al46DRESSRCT2180RAADA, ETATAPLDADAS28 ≤3.288%1.5
  • *Number of treatment arms during the tapering phase.

  • †Number of patients subjected to tapering.

  • ‡% of patients with successful tapering. §Not defined but most in DAS2.6 remission.

  • ¶No specific definition.

  • **DAS28 based on C-reactive protein.

  • ††All conventional DMARDs as well as TNFi and TOC.

  • ABA, abatacept; ACR, American Colleague of Rheumatology; ADA, adalimumab; ARA, American Rheumatism Association criteria from 1981; DAS28, disease activity score 28 (based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate if not stated otherwise); DMARDs, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; EA, early arthritis; ERA, early rheumatoid arthritis; ETA, etanercept; FO, follow-up time after tapering/stopping in years; (–) means not defined or less than 6 months; IC, inclusion criterion; IFX, infliximab; LDA, low disease activity; RA, established rheumatoid arthritis; MTX, methotrexate; RCT, randomised controlled trial; REM, remission; SA, subanalysis of randomised controlled trial; SD, synthetic DMARDs; SJC, swollen joint count; STOP, withdrawal of DMARD; SUS, sustained remission of at least 6 months (6 m) before tapering/stopping of DMARDs; TAP, dose tapering of DMARD; TJC, tender joint count; TOC, tocilizumab; TNFi, tumour necrosis factor inhibitor; UC, uncontrolled study.