Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study cohorts in the 365 days before study entry

N70 015210 045
Percentage or mean±SD
Follow-up, year2.1±1.82.0±1.8
 Age, years56.8±9.056.8±9.0
 Cardiovascular disease12.410.5
 Valvular heart disease4.84.6
 Chronic lung disease10.612.6
 Chronic kidney disease9.72.3
 Liver disease4.33.2
 Comorbidity score†0.1±1.40.1±1.1
 Allopurinol or febuxostat55.20
 Recent colchicine use‡10.50
 Lipid-lowering drugs43.738.0
 Recent steroid use‡6.84.2
 365-day cumulative prednisone-equivalent dose (mg)108.4±410.583.0±512.8
 Non-selective NSAIDs58.355.1
 Selective cox-2 inhibitors4.811.4
 Beta blockers23.814.2
 Calcium channel blockers19.611.7
 ACE inhibitors or ARBs45.431.1
Healthcare usage
 No. of outpatient physician visits7.1±5.58.2±5.6
 Emergency room visit20.018.0
 Acute hospitalisation8.110.0
 No. of prescription drugs8.6±5.48.1±5.1
Laboratory test
 CRP ordered9.68.2
 ESR ordered15.711.4
 CRP or ESR level available6.65.0
 Elevated CRP or ESR§35.523.4
 Uric acid ordered56.27.1
 Uric acid level available21.42.7
 Uric acid, mg/dl¶
(median, IQR)
(7.5, 6.0–8.8)
(5.8, 4.9–6.8)
  • *Gout and osteoarthritis groups are age, sex and index-date matched.

  • †The range of the comorbidity score is −2 to 26.

  • ‡Recent use is defined as any use within 30 days from the index date.

  • §Proportions were calculated among patients with baseline CRP or ESR levels available.

  • ¶The mean uric acid level was calculated among patients with baseline uric acid levels available.

  • ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; CRP, C reactive protein; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.