Table 3

Association* between adverse life events and onset of chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain (n=2039)

Onset of chronic pain
HR (95% CI)p Value
Number of adverse life events
 Sociodemographic†1.16 (1.06 to 1.27)0.001
 Lifestyle and disease‡1.15 (1.06 to 1.26)0.002
 Depression and anxiety§1.14 (1.04 to 1.24)0.005
  • *Using Cox regression analyses; HR=HR per 1 unit increase.

  • †Adjusted for sex, age, years of education.

  • ‡Additionally adjusted for alcohol intake, smoking, body mass index, number of chronic diseases and physical activity.

  • §Additionally adjusted for lifetime diagnoses of depressive and anxiety disorders and use of antidepressants.