Table 4

Association of individual-level and country-level socioeconomic factors with DAS28: results from a multivariable linear regression model

Independent variableβ (95% CI)*
n=3580
Age, years0.00 (−0.01 to 0.00)
Gender (female vs male)0.30 (0.18 to 0.43)
Primary education vs university0.52 (0.39 to 0.65)
Secondary education vs university0.14 (0.02 to 0.26)
High RF or ACPA0.26 (0.16 to 0.36)
Rheumatic Disease Comorbidity Index (0–8)0.09 (0.05 to 0.14)
Low GDP vs high GDP0.98 (0.87 to 1.09)
  • Model R2=0.14.

  • *Estimates with p<0.05 are in bold.

  • ACPA, anticitrullinated protein antibody; DAS28, disease activity score with 28-joint assessment; GDP, gross domestic product; RF, rheumatoid factor.