Table 2

Association of individual socioeconomic factors and country of residence with DAS28: results from a multivariable linear regression model

Independent variableβ (95% CI)*
n=3580
Age, years0.00 (0.00 to 0.01)
Gender (female vs male)0.35 (0.23 to 0.47)
Primary education vs university0.35 (0.21 to 0.49)
Secondary education vs university0.16 (0.03 to 0.28)
High RF or ACPA0.28 (0.19 to 0.38)
Rheumatic Disease Comorbidity Index (0–8)0.09 (0.05 to 0.13)
The NetherlandsReference category†
Argentina vs the Netherlands1.06 (0.71 to 1.40)
Austria vs the Netherlands0.31 (−0.04 to 0.65)
Egypt vs the Netherlands2.40 (2.07 to 2.73)
France vs the Netherlands0.22 (−0.09 to 0.53)
Germany vs the Netherlands0.79 (0.41 to 1.16)
Hungary vs the Netherlands0.91 (0.56 to 1.25)
Italy vs the Netherlands0.74 (0.40 to 1.08)
Japan vs the Netherlands0.31 (−0.03 to 0.65)
Korea vs the Netherlands0.65 (0.34 to 0.96)
Morocco vs the Netherlands2.32 (1.98 to 2.67)
Spain vs the Netherlands0.42 (0.07 to 0.77)
Taiwan vs the Netherlands0.95 (0.63 to 1.28)
The UK vs the Netherlands0.90 (0.35 to 1.45)
Uruguay vs the Netherlands0.30 (−0.28 to 0.88)
The USA vs the Netherlands0.80 (0.49 to 1.12)
Venezuela vs the Netherlands1.07 (0.72 to 1.41)
  • Model R2=0.21.

  • *Estimates with p<0.05 are in bold.

  • †The Netherlands was chosen as reference category as the country with the lowest DAS28 (unadjusted).

  • ACPA, anticitrullinated protein antibody; DAS28, disease activity score with 28-joint assessment; RF, rheumatoid factor.