Table 5

Results for outcome functional ability*

Baseline predictors (within 6 months after diagnosis)Number of studies
 Gender: female2536, 37, 41, 44, 49, 50, 52
 Ethnicity: Hispanic143
 Ethnicity: Native North American1/052
 Higher age at onset2/1536, 37, 41, 44, 45, 50, 52, 53
 Higher age at diagnosis149
 Longer time from onset to diagnosis2/0236, 44, 49, 52
 Diagnosis at first visit144
 Family history of AS in first degree relative137
 Residence on a reserve152
 Rural residence152
JIA category244, 50
 Oligoarticular persistent
 Oligoarticular extended
 Systemic1/0336, 41, 52, 53
 Poly RF-12/0136, 41, 52, 53
 Poly RF+12/0136, 41, 52, 53
Disease activity
 Higher active joint count4/0236, 41, 44, 49, 50, 53
 Higher limited joint count0/136
 Higher involved joint count1137, 50
 Higher articular severity score153
 Higher PGA1/1136, 44, 49
 Higher parent/patient GA2/036, 49
 Higher pain VAS2/036, 49
 Higher CHAQ score236, 49
 Higher JAQQ score136
 Hand involvement2/041, 53
 Hip involvement1137, 41
 Ankle involvement137
 Symmetric involvement21/041, 47, 53
 ANA positive2150, 52, 53
 RF positive11/0141, 50, 53
 Higher ESR2/0436, 37, 44, 49, 50, 53
 Higher number of months with elevated ESR (in first 6 months)141
 Higher CRP236, 44
 Higher number of platelets144
 Higher albumin level1/053
 HLA-B5 (51,52)153
 HLA-C3 (9,10)1/053
 HLA-DR1 (15,16)153
 HLA-DR3 (17,18)153
 HLA-DR5 (11,12)153
 TNF-α -308G→A248, 51
 TGF-β codon 10T→C148
 TGF-β codon 25G→C148
 IL-6 -174G→C148
 IL-10 -1082G→A148
 IL-10 -819C→T148
 IL-10 -592C→A148
 MIF -173 C allele0/1154, 55
 MIF -794 CATT repeats154
  • *Values are the number of studies that found that particular result for the respective predictors. †The first number in this column refers to the number of studies that performed a multivariate analysis disconfirming the univariate finding (studies in which the multivariate analysis confirmed the univariate finding, are shown in the columns labelled − and +, respectively). The second number in this column refers to the number of studies that did not perform a multivariate analysis. ‡In studies that evaluated onset categories oligoarticular, polyarticular and systemic, results have been duplicated for oligoarthritis persistent and extended, and polyarthritis RF-positive and RF-negative, respectively. −, lower chance of favourable outcome in multivariate analysis (p≤0.05); <, lower chance of favourable outcome in univariate analysis (p≤0.05); NS, not significant (p>0.05); S, significant in univariate analysis. Direction of the effect not shown (p≤0.05); >, higher chance of favourable outcome in univariate analysis (p≤0.05); +, higher chance of favourable outcome in multivariate analysis (p≤0.05).

  • ANA, antinuclear antibodies; AS, ankylosing spondylitis; CHAQ, childhood health-assessment questionnaire; CRP, C-reactive protein; ERA, enthesitis-related arthritis; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; HLA, human leucocyte antigens; IFN, interferon; IL, interleukin; JAQQ, juvenile arthritis quality of life questionnaire; JIA, Juvenile idiopathic arthritis; MIF, macrophage migratory inhibition factor; PGA, physician's global assessment; RF, rheumatoid factor; TGF, transforming growth factor; TNF, tumour necrosis factor; VAS, visual analogue scale.