Table 2

Summary of studies including the prevalence of primary Sjogren’s syndrome

AuthorYearCountrySource of casesStudy designCase ascertainmentpSS cases (n)Total number of population (n)Female/male (n)PR (95% Cl)/100 000Quality
Zhang et al201995China (Beijing)Questionnaire
Clinical examination
Population surveySan Diego criteria*72066NS338.82 (87.82 to 589.81)Moderate
Dafni et al211997Greece (Astakos)Questionnaire
Clinical examination
Population surveyEC-19935837NS597.37 (73.76 to 1120.98)Moderate
Thomas, et al221998UK (Manchester)Questionnaire
Clinical examination
Population surveyEC-19931334312/13790.09 (1729.81 to 5850.36)Moderate
Tomsic et al231999Slovenia (Ljubljana)Questionnaire
Clinical examination
Population surveyEC-19962332NS602.41 (−232.47 to 1437.29)Moderate
Bowman et al242004UK (Birmingham)Questionnaire
Clinical examination
Population surveyAECG-20022846NS236.41 (−91.23 to 564.04)Moderate
Trontzas et al252005GreeceQuestionnaire
Clinical examination
Population surveyAECG-2002138740NS148.74 (67.89 to 229.60)Moderate
Kabasakal et al262006Turkey (Bornova)Questionnaire
Clinical examination
Cross-sectional population surveyEC-199313831NS722.02 (144.29 to 1299.75)Moderate
Alamanos et al14§2006Greece (north-west Greece)Medical record search
Personal registry physicians
Population basedAECG-2002422488 435402/2086.40 (78.16 to 94.64)Good
Haugen et al152008Norway (Hordaland)Questionnaire
Clinical examination
Population surveyEC-1996
16 046
16 046
NS430.01 (328.55 to 531.48)Moderate
Birlik et al272009Turkey (Balcova, Narlidere)Questionnaire
Clinical examination
Population surveyAECG-2002628876/0207.83 (41.53 to 374.12)Moderate
Anagnostopoulos et al282010Greece (Prefecture)Questionnaire
Clinical examination
Cross-sectional population surveyAECG-200241705NS234.60 (4.70 to 464.51)Moderate
Goransson et al16§2011Norway (Hordaland Rogaland)Personal registry physiciansMedical record searchPopulation basedAECG-2002424852 342396/2849.75 (45.01 to 54.48)Good
Eaton et al182011DenmarkMedical record linkage systemPopulation basedICD-8,ICD-1026155 472 032NS47.79 (45.96 to 49.62)Good
Sardu et al172012Italy (Sardinia)Medical record searchPopulation basedEC-19931028879/130.91 (9.49 to 52.32)Good
See et al192013China (Taiwan)Medical record searchPopulation basedICD-95831 000 000NS58.30 (53.57 to 63.03)Good
Maldini C, et al292013France (Pairs)Comprehension methods**Population basedAECG-20021331 172 482NS11.34 (9.42 to 13.27)Good
Yu et al132013China (Taiwan)Medical record searchPopulation basedICD codes system154963 355136/1815.99 (13.46 to 18.51)Good
Valim et al302013Brazil (Vitoria)Questionnaire
Clinical examination
Cross-sectional Population surveyAECG-200221205NS60.82 (43.69 to 77.94)Moderate
  • *This criteria only was used in Zhang et al's study.

  • †The study was only conducted in female population.

  • ‡The study was excluded from the sensitivity analysis because it did not state the type of Sjogren’s syndrome patients.

  • §The age of pSS cases was 55.4±12.5 years, 61.6±13.2 years, respectively.

  • ¶EC-1993 is criteria for the classification of Sjogren’s syndrome supposed by the European Community.

  • **Included National Health Insurance (NHI) database, national patient support group, private laboratories and community-based physicians.

  • IR, incidence rate; NS, no stated; PR, prevalence rate; pSS, primary Sjögren's syndrome.