Table 4

Results of the multivariate Cox proportional model for predictors of all causes of death (adjusted on age, disease duration, diffuse cutaneous subtype and anti-Scl70 antibodies)

Predictors (at baseline)p MultivariateHR, 95% CI
Male sex<0.0011.48 (1.19 to 1.84)
ACA antibodiesNS
Valentini score ≥3NS
Tendon friction rubsNS
Muscle weakness0.0191.31 (1.05 to 1.63)
Muscle atrophy0.0131.40 (1.08 to 1.82)
CK elevationNS
Joint contracture0.0151.29 (1.05 to 1.57)
Joint synovitisNS
Digital ulcers0.0031.34 (1.11 to 1.62)
Scleroderma renal crisisNS
Proteinuria<0.0011.93 (1.44 to 2.60)
Pulmonary hypertension0.0102.56 (1.26 to 5.20)
DLCO<60%<0.0012.61 (2.12 to 3.22)
Lung fibrosis0.0021.39 (1.13 to 1.71)
Oesophageal symptomsNS
Stomach symptomsNS
Intestinal symptoms0.0061.34 (1.09 to 1.66)
Arterial hypertensionNS
  • Predictors were identified in univariate Cox proportional model as predictors of death with a p value<0.1.

  • ACA, anticentromere antibodies; disease was active if the Valentini score was ≥3; CK, creatine kinase; pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed on right heart catheterisation; DLCO, carbon monoxide diffusing capacity test; lung fibrosis was considered if present on X-rays and/or high-resolution CT; NS, not significant.