Table 3

Results of the multivariate Cox proportional model for predictors of new occurrence heart dysfunction during the follow-up (adjusted on age, disease duration, diffuse cutaneous subtype and anti-Scl70 antibodies)

Predictors (at baseline)p MultivariateHR, 95% CI
Male sex0.0352.22 (1.06 to 4.63)
Valentini score ≥30.0113.49 (1.34 to 9.07)
Tendon friction rubsNS
Muscle weaknessNS
Joint contractureNS
Joint synovitis<0.0013.31 (1.71 to 6.40)
CK elevation0.0172.64 (1.20 to 5.81)
Lung fibrosisNS
Pulmonary hypertension0.01014.40 (1.91 to 108.71)
  • Heart dysfunction was defined as left ventricular ejection fraction below 50% predicted. Predictors were identified in univariate Cox proportional model with a p value<0.1. CK, creatine kinase; lung fibrosis was considered if present on X-rays and/or high-resolution CT; pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed on right heart catheterisation; NS, not significant; disease was active if the Valentini score was ≥3.