Table 3

The natural course of inflammatory ultrasound features and its association with progression of osteophytes and joint space narrowing in hand joints at risk for progression (max. 30 joints per patient) in 56 patients with hand osteoarthritis over 2.3 years of follow-up

Ultrasound featureNumber of joints with/without progressionCrude OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)*Adjusted OR (95% CI)†
Osteophyte progression
PDS
 Persistent‡14/1916.4 (7.9 to 34.0)13.6 (6.0 to 30.7)4.6 (1.8 to 12.0)
 Fluctuating‡33/1773.2 (2.0 to 5.2)3.0 (1.8 to 5.1)2.2 (1.3 to 3.7)
 Absent73/1246111
Synovial thickening
 Persistent34/6811.8 (6.5 to 21.4)11.3 (5.5 to 23.0)4.6 (2.0 to 10.3)
 Fluctuating45/5591.6 (1.01 to 2.4)1.3 (0.8 to 2.3)NP
 Absent41/815111
Effusion
 Persistent40/1655.7 (3.6 to 9.1)4.6 (2.7 to 7.9)2.2 (1.1 to 4.5)
 Fluctuating44/5381.7 (1.05 to 2.8)1.3 (0.8 to 2.2)NP
 Absent36/739111
Joint space narrowing progression
PDS
 Persistent10/2111.7 (5.1 to 27.0)6.6 (2.5 to 17.8)3.1 (1.2 to 8.0)
 Fluctuating24/1982.6 (1.6 to 4.0)1.7 (1.09 to 2.8)1.3 (0.8 to 2.3)
 Absent62/1265111
Synovial thickening
 Persistent21/778.2 (4.0 to 17.0)5.6 (2.6 to 12.1)2.7 (1.1 to 6.3)
 Fluctuating44/5702.2 (1.2 to 3.9)1.5 (0.8 to 2.8)NP
 Absent31/837111
Effusion
 Persistent36/1726.9 (3.9 to 12.1)3.6 (2.0 to 6.5)2.3 (1.1 to 4.5)
 Fluctuating35/5552.0 (1.2 to 3.3)1.3 (0.8 to 2.1)NP
 Absent25/757111
  • *Model adjusted for age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI), baseline joint space narrowing score and baseline osteophyte score.

  • †Model adjusted for age, gender, BMI, baseline osteophyte and baseline joint space narrowing score, and other baseline inflammatory ultrasound features.

  • ‡Persistent=present at baseline and follow-up, fluctuating=present either at baseline or at follow-up.

  • NP, not performed; PDS, power Doppler signal.