Table 4

Recommendation 4: summary of studies on the use of radiography in monitoring structural changes in axial spondyloarthritis

Correlation
StudiesNo.RegionX-ray scoring methodBASFIBASMIMetrological measuresCT
Longitudinal/RCT
 Machado et al63214SpinemSASSS0.18; p=0.0080.59; p<0.001
 Averns et al8153SpineSASSS−0.396, p<0.01 (CE)
0.503, p<0.001 (OWD)
0.351, p<0.02 (FFD)
−0.690, p<0.0001 (Schober)
−0.717, p<0.0001 (total spinal movement)
 Baraliakos et al8282SpinemSASSSNS0.49–0.59; p=0.01
 Baraliakos et al8380SpinemSASSS0.49NS
 Creemers et al8550SpinemSASSSp=0.05–0.0005 (CE, OWD, SF)
 Salaffi et al9395SpinemSASSSp=0.02p=0.01
 Taylor et al9470Spine/SIJSemi-quantitative−0.40; p<0.05 (SF)0.52; p<0.01 (spine) 0.75; p<0.001 (SIJ)
 Wanders et al96133Spine/SIJmSASSS0.41−0.77 (SF)
SASSS0.65 (OWD)
BASRI−0.76 (mSchober)
Cross-sectional/case–control
 Lee et al8639SpineBASRI0.53–0.73 (p<0.001)
 Lubrano et al8777SpineBASRINS0.47; p<0.0010.49, p<0.001 (CR)
mSASSS0.34, p<0.01 (TWD)
0.49, p<0.001 (OWD)
−0.24, p<0.05 (mSchober)
0.37, p<0.01 (FFD)
  • The Spearman test for rank correlation is used for test of correlation, values are correlation coefficients (rho), if not otherwise indicated. p Values indicate the level of statistical significance.

  • BASFI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index; BASMI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index; BASRI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Radiology Index; CE, chest expansion; CR, cervical rotation; FFD, finger-to-floor distance; mSASSS, modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Score; mSchober, modified Schober's test; No., number of individuals included in the study; NS, not statistically significant; OWD, occiput-wall distance; RCT, randomised controlled trial; SASSS, Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Score; SF, spinal flexion; SIJ, sacroiliac joints; TWD, tragus-to-wall distance; –, not done.