Table 1

Altered expression of selected genes in FSTL1 KO MSCs

GeneChangeReported activity
BMP4 pathway
 BMP4DownEssential for early chondrogenesis, enhances the synthesis of type II collagen and aggrecan by articular chondrocytes in vitro2
 BMPERUpBMP4 inhibitor29
 GREM1UpPotent BMP4 inhibitor30
IGF pathway
 IGFBP4UpExpression is enhanced in human osteoarthritic cartilage31
Wnt pathway
 DKK3UpWnt antagonist, expression is decreased during differentiation of ATDC5 cells32
 WISP1UpNegative regulator of TGFβ signalling33
Other pathways
 CTSKUpReduces matrix production in cultured human chondrocytes in vitro34
 DLK1DownPromotes the early commitment of MSCs to the chondrocytic lineage, prevents chondrocyte maturation and hypertrophy35
 ITM2ADownInvolved in early stages of the chondrogenic differentiation pathway36
 PRELPDownExpression is increased in bone marrow MSCs during in vitro chondrogenesis37
  • BMP, bone morphogenetic protein; FSTL1, follistatin-like protein 1; IGF, insulin-like growth factor; KO, knockout; MSC, mesenchymal stem cell; TGFβ, transforming growth factor β.