Table 1

Patient characteristics

 Gout patientsComparator patients
StudyDesignPopulationDatesNDisease duration, years (mean)Age, years (mean)NAge, years (mean)ArthrocentesisConditions
 Ottaviani et al15Prospective case–controlHospital outpatients with rheumatic disease11/2008–10/2010539.259.75059.5YesCPPD, RA, OA, PsA
 Lamers-Karnebeek et al18Prospective cross-sectionalPatients presenting with mono- or oligoarthritisNR26NR63.528NRYesCPPD, ReA, PsA, OA, PMR, UA, Lofgren syndrome, gout with neg MSU (2 patients)
 Thiele et al17Retrospective case–controlRheumatology clinic patients with unclear diagnosis11/2003–12/200423 NR58.623NRNoCPPD, RA, sarcoidosis, OA, FMS, PsA, bursitis, tendinitis, inflammatory oligoarthritis NOS, lateral epicondylitis, muscle fibre tear
 Naredo et al14Prospective case–controlRheumatology and general practice clinicsNR91756.44256.6NRRA, SpA, healthy
 Nalbant et al13Prospective case–controlPatients with subcutaneous nodules and rheumatic disease attending rheumatology clinics5/2001–10/20011010.761.31356.5NRRA
 Ponce et al21*Prospective cross-sectionalPatients with joint effusionNR13 NRNR88NRYesOA, RA, SpA, UIA, CTD, CPPD, bursitis, AVN, haemorrhagic joint
 Bergner et al20*Cross-sectionalPatients undergoing arthrocentesisNR39NRNR74NRYesCPPD, non-crystal arthropathy
Dual energy computed tomography
 Glazebrook et al12Retrospective cross-sectionalPatients with arthralgia and potential gout4/2008–2/201012† NRNR19NRYesCPPD, possible diagnoses of RA, seronegative IA, and CTS
 Bongartz et al19Prospective case–controlPatients with joint pain or swelling in rheumatology procedure clinic10/2010–9/201240NR‡62.14158.7YesOA, RA, septic arthritis, CTD, CPPD, unknown
 Choi et al11Prospective case–controlClinic patients with arthritis12/2009–6/20114013624053NRRA, PsA, OA, UIA, AS
Plain radiography
 Parker et al16Retrospective cross-sectionalPatients undergoing routine lateral CXR1978–198020 NR60.8Healthy: 69
Arthritis: 88
Healthy: 52.6
Arthritis: 58
NRAmong those with arthritis: RA, ReA, AS, PsA, CPPD, PMR, DISH
  • *Refers to an abstract.

  • †43 patients included in study initially but only 12 were found to have MSU crystals.

  • ‡20 patients had symptom duration <6 weeks.

  • AS, ankylosing spondylitis; AVN, avascular necrosis; CPPD, calcium pyrophosphate disease; CTD, connective tissue disease; CXR, chest radiograph; DISH, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis; NR, not reported; OA, osteoarthritis; PMR, polymyalgia rheumatica; PsA, psoriatic arthritis; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; ReA, reactive arthritis; SpA, spondyloarthropathy; UIA, undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis.