Table 2

Study characteristics

StudyTrainingBlindedFeatures examinedJoints includedActive joints onlyArthrocentesis of all imaged joints
Ultrasound
 Ottaviani et al15Rheumatologists trained in MSK USReader 1: noDouble contour sign and tophus at MTP, knee, MCPBilateral MTP1, MTP2, knees, MCP2, MCP3 (10 joints total)NoNo
Reader 2: yes
Lamers-Karnebeek et al18Rheumatologists (2 trainees, 2 established)YesDouble contour sign and tophus at MTP1, knee, wrist, ankle, MCP, elbowKnee, MTP1, wrist, ankleNoNo
 Thiele et al17Rheumatologist trained in MSK US
Second rheumatologist with limited training
YesDouble contour sign
MTP effusion
Power Doppler of synovium
Humeral head, humero-radial joint, MCP joints, knee, MTP1YesNo
 Naredo et al14Rheumatologists trained in MSK USYesDouble contour sign
intra-articular, intra-bursal, or tendon/ligament hyperechoic aggregates or hyperechoic linear band
Bilateral elbow, radiocarpal, midcarpal, ulnar-carpal, first through fifth MCP, knee, tibiotalar, talonavicular, and first MTP, wrist extensor and flexor tendons, quadriceps tendon, patellar tendon, ankle retromalleolar medial and lateral tendons, ankle extensor tendons, Achilles tendon, and medial and lateral collateral ligaments of the knee, deep infrapatellar bursa, retrocalcaneal bursa and gastrocnemius, semimembranosus bursaeNoNo
 Nalbant et al13Rheumatologist trained in MSK USNRNodule characteristics: density (homogenous or heterogenous), hypoechoic, hyperechoic, post acoustic shadow, adjacent cortical bone irregularity, adjacent bursitisSites of nodule involvementYesNo
 Ponce et al21*Not reportedYesFluid characteristics: cloudy, anechoic, cloudy, mixed, dotted, corpuscular, granularKnees, shoulders, elbows, ankles, MCPs, Baker cystsYesYes
 Bergner et al20*NRNRDouble contour sign, synovitis, hypervascularisationKnees, small finger or toe joints, elbows, ankles, shoulders, wristsYesYes
Dual energy computed tomography
 Glazebrook et al122 MSK radiologistsYesMSU crystal depositionAffected jointYesNo
 Bongartz et al192 MSK radiologistsYesMSU crystal depositionAffected joint†YesYes
 Choi et al11MSK radiologistYesMSU crystal depositionAll peripheral joints (elbows, wrists, hands, knees, ankles and feet)NoNo
Plain radiography
 Parker et al16Rheumatologist and radiologistYesInflammatory bone changes
Proliferative bone changes
Joint fusion
Sternomanubrial jointsNoNo
  • *Refers to an abstract.

  • †A secondary analysis in Bongartz et al. examine all joints but this analysis was not included in the meta-analysis.

  • MSK, musculoskeletal, MSU, monosodium urate, US, musculoskeletal ultrasound, MCP, metacarpophalangeal joint, MTP, metatarsophalangeal joint, NR, not reported.