Table 2

Characteristics of studies on prognostic factors

Study IDPICODesignDur.Follow-upPMR criteriaPrognostic factorNo pt.No female (%)No pt. with complete follow-up (%)Outcomes (time point)
1985 Ayoub3114Case–control (retro.)8 yNRDescript.Sex7642 (55)76 (100)GC-sides (varT)
2008 Barraclough3214Case–control (retro.)10 y2 yClinicalSex183138 (75)183 (100)Longer duration GC therapy
15ESR, CRP, PV180138 (77)180 (100)
2000 Cantini33 ¥15Obs. (prosp.)5 y37 m‡Descript.ESR177117 (66)177 (100)Duration GC therapy
1996 Caplanne 3414Obs. (prosp.)NRNRBirdSex2015 (75)20 (100)Relapse (varT)
2006 Ceccato3517Case–control (retro.)13 y40 m‡ChuangArthritis7456 (76)74 (100)Relapse (varT)
1994Cimmino36 #14Obs. (prosp.)NR19 mJones & HazlemanSex4024 (60)38 (95)GC-sides (varT)
2006 Cimmino37 #14Obs. (prosp.)NR15 mChuangSex8052 (65)80 (100)Number of relapses (varT), Cumul GC (varT), GC-sides (varT)
2011 Cimmino38 #14Obs. (prosp.)18 m6 mBirdSex6035 (58)60 (100)Response (1 m)
17ArthritisResponse (1 m)
20Rapid responseRelapse (6 m)
1997 Dolan1414Obs. (prosp.)NR96 wJonesSex5036 (72)50 (100)Disc GC (2 y)
2013 Do-Nguyen3913Case–control (retro.)11 y1 y‡NRAge10071 (71)100 (100)Remission on and off therapy (1 y)
18sympt. dur.
1997 Gonzalez-Gay4015Case–control (retro.)NR27/32 m†Descript.ESR201121 (60)191 (95)Duration GC therapy
1999 Gonzalez-Gay4114Case–control (retro.)NR≥12 mDescrip.Sex13485 (63)NRRelapse (varT)
2001 Gran4214Case–control (retro.)11 y64 mBirdSex274183 (67)NRMortality (varT)
1996 Helfgott4315Case–control (retro.)5 yNRJonesESR11789 (76)117 (100)Time to response
2007 Hutchings415Obs. (prosp.)2 y12 mJonesESR12977 (60)122 (95)HAQ (12 m), SF36-PCS/MCS (12 m)
16Morning stiffnessHAQ (12 m), SF36-PCS/MCS (12 m)
20Rapid responseRelapse (12 m)
1986 Kanemaru1814Case–control (retro.)9 yNRHamrinSex63 (50)6 (100)Relapse (varT)
20Rapid response
1997 Kanik4414Case–control (retro.)NR33–38 m†Descript.Sex2016 (80)20 (100)Disc GC (varT)
2012 Kim4517Case–control (retro.)NR28 m†BirdArthritis5136 (71)41 (80)Remission (varT)
2012 Kimura4617Case–control (retro.)10 y26 m†HunderRS3PE15178 (52)136 (90)Relapse (varT), GC-sides (varT), duration GC therapy
2005 Kremers20 &13Case–control (retro.)30 y5 y‡Descript.Age364244 (67)163* (100)Hazard 1st relapse
2005 Kremers47 &13Case–control (retro.)30 y5y‡Descript.Age364244 (67)364 (100)HealthC (6 m, ever)
14SexHealthC (1 m, 6 m, ever)
15ESRHealthC (6 m, ever)
2000 Larrosa4815Case–control (retro.)8 yNRChuangESR10167 (66)97 (96)Relapse (varT)
2013 Lee2414Case–control (retro.)NR114 w†BirdSex3928 (72)39 (100)Relapse (varT)
2010 Mackie2514Obs. (prosp.)NR5 yBirdSex176124 (71)164 (93)Earlier disc GC therapy, Devel. GCA (varT)
2012 Mazzantini4919Case–control (retro.)39 yNRBirdOsteoporosis222154 (69)NRFractures (varT)
DiabetesCardiovascular events (varT)
DyslipidaemiaCardiovascular events (varT)
2000 Meyerhof5014Case–control (retro.)NR563 dBirdESR2215 (68)14 (64)Response to GC (varT)
20Fast taperRemission (varT), Relapse (varT)
2001 Myklebust2615Case–control (retro.)8 yNRBirdESR199160 (80)180 (91)Disc GC (1, 2 y)
2000 Nagaoka5114Case–control (retro.)12 y5 y‡BirdSex2010 (50)18 (90)Relapse (varT)
1971 Paulsen5213Case–control (retro.)NR41 m†NRAge1614 (88)16 (100)Relapse (varT)
1999 Prickard5314Case–control (retro.)13 yNRDescript.Sex4940 (82)37 (76)Remission (2 y), Osteoporosis (varT), diabetes (varT), weight gain (varT), cataract (varT), moon face (varT), gastric complications (varT)
1999 Proven54 &15Case–control (retro.)215–7 y‡Descript.ESR232163 (70)232 (100)Remission (varT), relapse (varT)
1998 Salvarani55 ¥17Obs. (prosp.)5 y25–41 mHealeyArthritis
177117 (66)177 (100)Relapse (varT), duration GC therapy, Cumul GC (varT)
1999 Salvarani56 ¥15Obs. (prosp.)NR44 m†Descript.ESR9269 (75)91 (99)Relapse (varT)
2005 Salvarani57 ¥14Obs. (prosp.)4 y35 m‡Descript.Sex9470 (75)94 (100)Relapse (varT)
1995 Schaufelberger5814Case–control (retro.)4 y36 m†Descript.Sex222158 (71)222 (100)Mortality (varT)
1995 Schreiber5920Obs. (prosp.)NR38 mDescript.Normal CRP within 1 week2011 (55)12–7$ (60–35)Disc GC (2, 3, 4, 5 y), GC-sides (varT)
  • Articles containing both, data on interventions and prognostic factors are marked in bold letters.

  • Studies are listed in alphabetical order; †mean, ‡median; #, & or ¥ multiple papers on partially the same cohort; *patients with first relapse analysed; †mean, ‡median; $number of patients with complete follow-up data depends on the outcome, £number of patients as reported in the study of Dasgupta et al.

  • Case–control (retro.), Case–control study with retrospective design; Control, control treatment; CRP, C-reactive protein; Cumul, cumulative; d, days; Descript., description of symptoms and laboratory criteria defining PMR (no formal criteria used); Devel. GCA, development of giant cell arteritis during follow-up; Disc, discontinuation; dur., total duration of study; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; Follow-up, length of follow-up; GC, glucocorticoid; GC-sides, glucocorticoid-related side effects; HAQ, Health Assessment Questionnaire; HealthC, healthcare resource use; inc., increased; m, months; MCS, mental component summary score; Mul., multicenter; No pt., number of patients; No, number of; NR; not reported; NSAIDs; non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; Obs. (prosp.), observational prospective follow-up; Outcome (time points), outcomes (out of the list of critical outcomes listed in online supplementary table S1) dealt with in the corresponding study and the time points at which the outcome was investigated in parentheses; PCS, physical component summary score; PICO, Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome (number of PICO question); PMR, polymyalgia rheumatica; R, randomised; RS3PE, remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting oedema; SF-36, short form 36 questionnaire; stiff, stiffness; Study ID, study identifier; sympt. Dur., symptom duration; varT, variable time point/no exact date reported; w, weeks; y, years.