Table 4

Causes of death during the 10 year follow-up (1999–2009) of the total cohort of 1000 patients

Causes of death*0–5 year (n=53)
No. (%)†
5–10 year (n=40)
No. (%)†
0–10 year (n=93)
No. (%)†
Bacterial infection11 (20.8)9 (22.5)20 (21.5)
Myocardial infarction10 (18.9)3 (7.5)13 (13.9)
Stroke7 (13.2)4 (10)11 (11.8)
Haemorrhage6 (11.3)4 (10)10 (10.7)
Malignancy6 (11.3)7 (17.4)13 (13.9)
Catastrophic APS5 (9.4)05 (5.4)
Pulmonary embolism5 (9.4)05 (5.4)
SLE pulmonary involvement3 (5.7)03 (3.2)
SLE renal involvement2 (3.8)1 (2.5)2 (2.5)
SLE central nervous system involvement1 (1.9)01 (1.1)
SLE haematological involvement01 (2.5)1 (1.1)
Chronic renal failure02 (5)2 (2.5)
Viral infection04 (10)4 (4.3)
Fungal infection1 (1.9)01 (1.1)
Trauma/accident03 (7.5)3 (3.2)
Unknown03 (7.5)3 (3.2)
  • *Several patients had more than one cause of death.

  • †Percentage of death.

  • APS, antiphospholipid syndrome; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.