Table 3

Characteristics of patients with gout after clustering on comorbidities

CharacteristicC1 (n=332)C2 (n=483)C3 (n=664)C4 (n=782)C5 (n=502)
Demographics
 Age61±1360±1263±1063±1173±10
 Male gender287 (86)396 (82)583 (88)680 (87)361 (72)
 Body mass index (kg/m²)25.6±2.633.4±3.131.1±4.926.4±2.529.2±5.1
 Increased abdominal circumference182 (62)417 (96)519 (87)497 (71)355 (80)
History of gout
 Family history of gout64 (19)123 (25)147 (22)159 (20)76 (15)
 Duration of gout (years)5.0±6.25.3±6.15.8±6.05.6±6.36.8±7.4
 Age at gout diagnosis56±1354±1257±1158±1166±12
 Gout attacks within previous 12 months1.7±1.32.0±1.51.9±1.51.9±1.51.9±1.5
 ≥1 tophi22 (7)50 (10)86 (13)62 (8)73 (15)
 History of kidney stone23 (7)56 (12)94 (14)96 (12)51 (10)
Comorbidity
 Obesity0 (0)483 (100)371 (56)15 (2)196 (39)
 Hypertension145 (44)308 (64)513 (77)447 (57)466 (93)
 Diabetes0 (0)0 (0)499 (75)17 (2)167 (33)
 Dyslipidaemia0 (0)362 (75)541 (81)770 (98)391 (78)
 Hypercholesterolaemia0 (0)344 (72)514 (77)789 (95)383 (76)
 Hypertriglyceridaemia0 (0)208 (44)376 (57)299 (38)213 (43)
 Metabolic syndrome*48 (34)226 (66)391 (77)307 (48)258 (68)
 Liver disorders0 (0)0 (0)258 (39)9 (1)12 (2)
 CHD0 (0)0 (0)16 (2)6 (1)252 (50)
 Heart failure0 (0)0 (0)11 (2)3 (0)168 (33)
 Renal failure0 (0)0 (0)9 (1)2 (0)230 (46)
 Cancer0 (0)0 (0)7 (2)60 (8)1 (0)
Lifestyle
 Alcohol >2 glasses/day122 (37)256 (53)396 (60)356 (46)160 (32)
 Beer ≥1 glass/day74 (22)155 (32)230 (35)213 (27)61 (12)
 Sugar-sweetened drink ≥1 glass/day37 (11)69 (14)91 (14)77 (10)23 (5)
Concomitant treatments
 Diuretics35 (11)87 (18)194 (29)134 (17)273 (54)
 ARAII51 (15)139 (29)276 (42)213 (27)219 (44)
 Losartan4 (1)5 (1)17 (3)12 (2)10 (2)
 Lipid-lowering drugs32 (6)354 (57)239 (72)344 (44)318 (65)
 Fenofibrate0 (0)82 (13)43 (13)97 (12)28 (6)
  • Data are mean±SD for continuous variables, and number (%) for categorical variables. Obesity is defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m². Clusters were as follows: C1, isolated gout; C2, gout and obesity; C3, gout, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome; C4, gout and dyslipidaemia; C5, gout, cardiorenal disorders and diuretics.

  • *Data were missing for 745 patients.

  • ARAII, type 2 angiotensin receptor antagonists; CHD, coronary heart disease.