Table 1

Detailed description of outcomes of interest and covariates in the analyses

 Overall mortalityMortality related to cardiovascular events, cancer and mortality due to unknown/unspecified causes
Cardiovascular events
 Coronary insufficiency syndromeHistory of ≥15 min chest pain accompanied by transient ischaemic changes in the ECG, but without changes in serum biomarkers of myocardial necrosis
 Recent/acute myocardial infarction (MI)≥2 of 3 findings; (1) typical symptoms, (2) changes in serum biomarkers and/or (3) ECG indicating myocardial infarction. Autopsy showing new/recent MI was also accepted as evidence
 Congestive heart failure (CHF)Minimum of two major or one major and two minor criteria present concurrently
Major criteria: (1) paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea or orthopnoea; (2) distended neck veins (other than supine position); (3) rales; (4) increasing heart size by x-ray; (5) acute pulmonary oedema on x-ray; (6) ventricular S(3) gallop; (7) increased venous pressure>16 cm H2O; (8) hepatojugular reflux; (9) pulmonary oedema, visceral congestion, cardiomegaly shown on autopsy; (10) weight loss on CHF Rx: 10 lbs/5 days
Minor criteria: (1) bilateral ankle oedema; (2) night cough; (3) dyspnoea on ordinary exertion; (4) hepatomegaly; (5) pleural effusion by x-ray; (6) decrease in vital capacity by 1/3 from maximum record; (7) tachycardia (≥120 beats per minute); (8) pulmonary vascular engorgement on x-ray
 Atherothrombotic brain infarctionSudden/rapid onset of focal neurological deficit>24 h without known sources of embolism, intracranial haemorrhage, known hypercoagulable states or other disease processes causing focal neurological deficits
 Body mass index (kg/m2)Weight (kg) and height (m) measured after standardised procedures
 Blood glucoseNon-fasting glucose of ≥200 mg/dL (≥11.1 mmol/L) or fasting glucose of ≥126 mg/dL (≥ 7.0 mmol/L)
 Lipid profileTotal cholesterol:high density lipoprotein ratio (used as continuous scale in the analyses)
 HypertensionElevated blood pressure (systolic ≥160 mmHg and/or diastolic ≥95 mmHg) measured by two physicians
 Previous cardiovascular eventsPrevious coronary insufficiency syndrome, MI, CHF and atherothrombotic stroke, as described above (ie, the diagnoses were arrived at by a panel of cardiologists and neurologists)
 Previous self-reported cancerPrevious cancer reported by the patient in a clinical interview
 Lipid lowering treatmentCurrent use of resins, niacin or nicotinic acid, fibrates, statins and/or other anticholesterol drugs assessed in a clinical interview
 AntihypertensivesCurrently receiving medication for the treatment of hypertension assessed in a clinical interview
 AntidiabeticsCurrent use of insulin and oral hypoglycaemics assessed in a clinical interview
 Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugsCurrent use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (Motrin, ibuprofen, Indocin, Clinoril) assessed in a clinical interview
 AspirinDaily use of aspirin (≥6 days per week) assessed in a clinical interview
 AlcoholAlcohol consumption (yes/no) assessed in a clinical interview
 Smoking (current and previous)Regularly smoking of cigarettes the last year and smoking of cigars and pipes assessed in a clinical interview (examination cycles 1–5 for Offspring and examination cycles 17–22 for Original cohort)