Table 4

HR (95% CI) of mortality and cardiovascular events in participants with radiographic and symptomatic hand osteoarthritis compared with those with no hand osteoarthritis as reference

Crude modelAdjusted model 1*Adjusted model 2†
Mortality
 No hand OA1.0 (ref)1.0 (ref)1.0 (ref)
 Radiographic hand OA2.32 (1.88–2.86); p<0.0010.79 (0.61–1.01); p=0.060.82 (0.63–1.07); p=0.14
 Symptomatic hand OA2.07 (1.56–2.75); p<0.0010.75 (0.55–1.03); p=0.080.79 (0.57–1.10); p=0.16
Crude modelAdjusted model 1*Adjusted model 2‡
Events (in participants with no previous events of interest)
Cardiovascular events
 No hand OA1.0 (ref)1.0 (ref)1.0 (ref)
 Radiographic hand OA2.25 (1.68–3–02); p<0.0011.04 (0.74–1.46); p=0.831.02 (0.72–1.45); p=0.90
 Symptomatic hand OA2.59 (1.80–3.73); p<0.0011.25 (0.83–1.89); p=0.281.32 (0.87–2.03); p=0.19
Coronary heart disease
 No hand OA1.0 (ref)1.0 (ref)1.0 (ref)
 Radiographic hand OA2.19 (1.44–3.34); p<0.0011.44 (0.89–2.35); p=0.141.60 (0.96–2.66); p=0.07
 Symptomatic hand OA2.56 (1.52–4.32); p<0.0011.89 (1.04–3.41); p=0.042.26 (1.22–4.18); p=0.009
Congestive heart failure
 No hand OA1.0 (ref)1.0 (ref)1.0 (ref)
 Radiographic hand OA2.66 (1.82–3.89); p<0.0010.92 (0.59–1.44); p=0.720.89 (0.56–1.41); p=0.63
 Symptomatic hand OA3.25 (2.06–5.14); p<0.0011.18 (0.71–1.98); p=0.521.23 (0.71–2.13); p=0.45
Atherothrombotic stroke
 No hand OA1.0 (ref)1.0 (ref)1.0 (ref)
 Radiographic hand OA1.84 (1.03–3.30); p=0.040.82 (0.43–1.58); p=0.560.73 (0.37–1.43); p=0.36
 Symptomatic hand OA2.28 (1.11–4.71); p=0.031.04 (0.47–2.31); p=0.910.99 (0.44–2.26); p=0.99
  • *Adjusted for age, sex, cohort and BMI.

  • †Adjusted for age, sex, cohort, BMI, total cholesterol:HDL ratio, current lipid lowering treatment, increased blood pressure, current antihypertensive treatment, elevated fasting or non-fasting blood glucose, current antidiabetic treatment (oral or insulin), previous cardiovascular events (coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, atherothrombotic stroke), previous cancer, current use of NSAIDs, daily use of aspirin, current/previous smoking, alcohol use.

  • ‡Adjusted for age, sex, cohort, BMI, total cholesterol:HDL ratio, current lipid lowering treatment, increased blood pressure, current antihypertensive treatment, elevated fasting or non-fasting blood glucose, current antidiabetic treatment (oral or insulin), current use of NSAIDs, daily use of aspirin, current/previous smoking, alcohol use.

  • BMI, body mass index; HDL, high density lipoprotein; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; OA, osteoarthritis.