Table 1

Clinical characteristics of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) at date of biopsy

Gender (F/M)11/4
Age (years), median (range)52 (35–78)
Disease duration (years), median (range)5 (0.5–11)
ANA positive15/15
Anti-topoisomerase positive6/15
Pulmonary fibrosis5/15
Myocardial involvement2/15
Pulmonary arterial hypertension3/15
Digital ulcers8/15
Active disease7/15
MedicationNo DMARDs, corticosteroids or NSAIDs
  • All patients had diffuse cutaneous SSc. The disease subset was determined according to the criteria proposed by LeRoy et al.19 Disease duration was measured from the onset of the first non-Raynaud symptoms attributable to SSc. Pulmonary arterial hypertension was diagnosed by right heart catheterisation. Disease activity was determined using the EULAR Systemic Sclerosis Activity Score. Patients with scores of ≥3 were classified as having active disease.

  • DMARD, disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; F, female; M, male; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.