Table 1

Studies included in the final analysis

ReferenceFemale/total, n/N (%)Age at GCA diagnosis, mean (range)Ascertainment of GCAAscertainment of aortic aneurysm/dilatationDefinition of aneurysm/dilatationTime since GCA diagnosis to imaging/aneurysmNewly identified aneurysm or dissection (F, females with TAA/TAD where information given)Dissection or rupture, N (%)Risk of bias estimate of aneurysm prevalence
Prieto-Gonzalez et al427/40 (68%)79 (57–92)Biopsy provenCT aortogramSee note 1Within 3 days of treatment6 (6 TAD, 0 AAD) (1F)0Low
Agard et al317/22 (77%)74 (61–86)Biopsy provenCT aortogramSee note 2Within 4 weeks4 (2 TAA, 2 TAD, 0 AAA/AAD)0Low
Garcia-Martinez et al2340/54 (74%)77 (63–91)Biopsy provenCXR+abdominal USS±CTSee note 3Median 5.4 (4–10.5) years12 (4 TAA, 7 TAD, 1 AAA) (5F)0Low
Karamagkiolis et al29NR/4973.5 (SD 4.5)NRAnnual CT thorax and abdomenNR7 years4 (4 TAA, 1 AAA)0Unclear (meeting abstract)
Both et al3086/105 (82%)65.2ACR criteria, or limb stenosisMRA thoraxNR31 (1–157) months18 (18 TAA)0Low
Koenigkam-Santos et al31NR/2869 (36–84)ACR criteria; or PMR with additional features suggesting large-vessel diseaseMRA thoraxNRNR0 (0 TAA)0High
Blockmans et al1432/46 (70%)73 (49–85)Biopsy provenAortic CTSee note 446.7 (SD 29.9) months11 (11 TAD)0High
Schmidt et al3223/33 (70%)73 (58–88)ACR criteria (except 2)Abdominal USSNRAt diagnosis2 (2 AAA)0Low
Agard et al525/30 (83%)69 (61–90)Biopsy provenAbdominal USSSee note 5Within 8 weeks8 (4 AAA, 4 AAD)0Low
Gonzalez-Gay et al27113/210 (54%)75Biopsy provenRecords review (not all patients imaged)NR; overlap with dissection57 (0–162) months20 (16 TAA, 6 AAA)2 (1)Low
Nuenninghoff et al28NRNRACR criteria (except 2)Pathology or imaging (not all patients imaged)NR10.9 (TAA), 6.3 (AAA)20 (9 TAA, 11 AAA)10 (6)Low
  • Note 1. TAD: >4 cm in ascending aorta, at least 4 cm in aortic arch or descending aorta; AAD: diameter at least 3 cm in abdominal aorta. Loss of normal progressive reduction in the abdominal aortic calibre was also considered as dilatation.

  • Note 2. TAA: aortic dilatation with loss of wall parallelism according to New York Heart Association (NYHA) criteria. TAD: radiologist-defined abnormal dilatation without loss of wall parallelism.

  • Note 3. TAA: focal dilatation of aortic wall. TAD: diffuse dilatation with diameter >4 cm in ascending aorta, or at least 4 cm in arch and descending aorta.

  • Note 4. TAD: diameter of ascending aorta >4 cm.

  • Note 5. AAA: dilatation of the aorta, either saccular or fusiform, with loss of aortic wall parallelism (NYHA definition). AAD: radiologist-defined abnormal dilatation without loss of wall parallelism.

  • AAA, abdominal aortic aneurysm; AAD, abdominal aortic dilatation; ACR, American College of Rheumatology; CXR, chest x-ray; MRA, magnetic resonance angiogram; NR, not reported; PMR, polymyalgia rheumatica; TAA, thoracic aortic aneurysm; TAD, thoracic aortic dilatation; USS, ultrasound scan.