Table 3

Description of annual direct medical cost of active SLE patients by disease severity

Patients’ healthcare consumption (annual)Severe patients (n=212)Non-severe patients (n=215)p Value
Mean%*Mean%*
Total annual cost (€)47482650<0.001
Laboratory tests (€)
 Any test3306.92368.9<0.001
 Immunological tests1192.5933.5<0.001
 Blood chemistry tests1382.9993.8<0.001
 Haematology tests501.1311.20.035
 Other biological test220.5130.47<0.001
Biopsies and imaging tests (€)
 Any test2575.41244.7<0.001
 Biopsies1232.6250.95<0.001
 Imaging test1342.8993.70.004
Medication (€)
 Any medication251853.0125147.2<0.001
 NSAIDS6.60.110.30.390.071
 Corticosteroids1312.8652.4<0.001
 Antimalarials681.4762.90.389
 Immunosuppressants158633.454920.7<0.001
 Biologics3677.71375.2<0.001
 Anti-osteoporosis drugs2695.72469.30.353
 Other treatments901.91686.30.615
Specialist visits (€)
 Any visits3968.432212.10.069
 Dermatologist6.40.149.40.350.506
 Ophthalmologist10.30.2214.70.560.224
 Rheumatologist1874.01806.80.712
 Pulmonologist3.60.075.10.190.711
 Cardiologist4.50.096.00.230.959
 Neurologist110.245.20.200.136
 Nephrologist310.669.80.37<0.001
 Psychiatrist3.80.081.40.050.625
 Internist1002.1632.80.172
 Surgical visit(s)7.50.166.90.260.400
Other visits310.65200.760.921
Hospitalisations124726.371827.1<0.001
Outpatient visits (€) (only for UK)
 Any visit16.60.357.00.260.115
 Without physician10.10.215.30.200.314
 With physician6.50.141.70.060.077
Day hospitalisation/day surgery (€)531.1401.50.057
Emergency room visits (€)100.2114.00.530.390
Inpatient stays (€)116024.464524.3<0.001
Rehabilitation stays (€)8.10.1712.10.460.785
  • *Percentage calculated as mean cost of each health resource with respect to global costs in each severity group and for overall study sample.

  • Percentages were calculated using the number of valid data.

  • SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.